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Bio 10.2 The Process of Cell Division

STUDY
PLAY
chromosome
packages of DNA that contain genetic information
prokaryotic chromosome
single, circular DNA chromosome
eukaryotic chromosome
-eukaryotes contain multiple chromosomes
-DNA wrapped around proteins (histones)
-DNA and histones form beadlike structures (nucleosomes)
chromatin
complex of chromosome and protein
cell cycle
cell grows, prepares for cell division and divides
prokaryotic cell cycle
binary fission:
-growth
-DNA replication
-cell divition
eukaryotic cell cycle
interphase and M phase
interphase
period of growth between cell divisions
-G1 phase
-S phase
-G2 phase
G1 phase
cell growth
S phase
DNA replication
G2 phase
cell prepares for cell division
mitosis
division of nucleus
-prophase
-metaphase
-anaphase
-telophase
prophase
-genetic material inside nucleus condenses
-spindles start to form
centromere
duplicated strands of DNA molecule attached here
(sister) chromatid
each DNA strand in a duplicated chromosome
centrioles
-spindle fibers extend from this organelle
-only found in animal cells
metaphase
-centromeres line up across center of cell
-spindle fibers connect to the centromere
anaphase
chromosomes separate and move along spindle fibers to opposite sides of the cell
telophase
-chromosomes spread out into chromatin
-nuclear envelopes reform
cytokinesis
division of the cytoplasm
cytokinesis in animal cells
cell membrane drawn inward to create two cells
cytokinesis in plant cells
cell plate forms halfway between divided nuclei