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packages of DNA that contain genetic information

prokaryotic chromosome

single, circular DNA chromosome

eukaryotic chromosome

-eukaryotes contain multiple chromosomes
-DNA wrapped around proteins (histones)
-DNA and histones form beadlike structures (nucleosomes)


complex of chromosome and protein

cell cycle

cell grows, prepares for cell division and divides

prokaryotic cell cycle

binary fission:
-DNA replication
-cell divition

eukaryotic cell cycle

interphase and M phase


period of growth between cell divisions
-G1 phase
-S phase
-G2 phase

G1 phase

cell growth

S phase

DNA replication

G2 phase

cell prepares for cell division


division of nucleus


-genetic material inside nucleus condenses
-spindles start to form


duplicated strands of DNA molecule attached here

(sister) chromatid

each DNA strand in a duplicated chromosome


-spindle fibers extend from this organelle
-only found in animal cells


-centromeres line up across center of cell
-spindle fibers connect to the centromere


chromosomes separate and move along spindle fibers to opposite sides of the cell


-chromosomes spread out into chromatin
-nuclear envelopes reform


division of the cytoplasm

cytokinesis in animal cells

cell membrane drawn inward to create two cells

cytokinesis in plant cells

cell plate forms halfway between divided nuclei

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