Chapter 23, Section 1

Advances in Technology and Communication
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What followed the first wave of the Industrial Revolution?
Significant inventions in communications and technology
How did one newspaper reporter react towards the invention of the telephone in 1876?
"The telephone is a curious device that might fairly find place in the magic of Arabian Tales. Of what use is such an invention?"
How did inventions of the Industrial Revolution first appear to the public?
Although some inventions of the Industrial Revolution seemed odd at first, they soon had a great effect on how people lived, worked, and thought.
What generated new industrial growth?
Beginning in the early 1800s, manufacturers increasingly applied the findings of science to their businesses, thus generating new industrial growth
What were the three main results of the application of scientific solutions to industrial problems?
First, it encouraged the development and use of new sources of power. This was necessary for industry to grow.
Second, it gave rise to inventions that could provide rapid communication over long distances.
Finally, it led to the creation of new products and materials and the improvement of old ones.
As industry grew during the 1800s, what did manufacturers continue to search for?
New and better sources of power
In the 1870s, what tremendous new power source was developed?
Electricity
Who made key discoveries about electricity in the 1820s and 1830s?
The English scientist Michael Faraday
What did Faraday concentrate mainly on?
Exploring the nature of electricity
What had many scientists believe before Faraday?
That electricity was a sort of fluid that flowed through wires like water through a pipe
What did Faraday argue after his rejection of the traditional view about electricity?
That electricity was a form of force or vibration that passed from one particle of matter to another
How did Faraday already know that electricity could produce magnetism?
From the work of André Ampère and other scientists
Knowing that electricity could produce magnetism, however, what did Faraday want to find out?
Whether magnetism could produce electricity
What did Faraday discover through his experiment?
He discovered that by moving a magnet through a coil of wire, he could generate an electric current in the wire
Using the research that Faraday collected by moving a magnet through a coil of wire, generating an electric current in the wire, what did Faraday develop?
The first dynamo
What is the term for an electric generator?
Dynamo
What was the dynamo's relation to all electric motors?
It was the direct ancestor of all electric motors
What was significant of the dynamo?
Driven either by a steam engine or by waterpower, the dynamo transformed mechanical power into electrical energy
In turn, what could the energy produced by the dynamo generate?
Power to run machines in factories
By the late 1800s, what had other inventors found?
Ways to use electricity as a new power source for industry and even to light up whole cities
What do all electric generators and transformers work on?
The principle of Faraday's dynamo
What had British and American inventors worked on?
Developing another practical use of electricity
What did British and American inventors who worked on developing another practical use of electricity already know?
That an electric current passing through certain kinds of wire made the wire glow
What could an electric current passing through certain kinds of wire, making the wire glow, further develop?
This could be a new source of light for streets, homes, and factories
What was the flaw of electric light bulbs that were first produced in the 1840s?
They burned out in a matter of minutes
Who created a bulb that glowed for two days before burning out?
In 1879 American inventor Thomas Edison
As electric lighting improved over the next few decades, what did it come to replace?
Electric lighting came to replace other sources of illumination
What was needed to make electricity practical?
It had to be transmitted efficiently from where it was generated to where it would be used
What did Edison additionally develop?
A system for successfully transmitting electricity from a central powerhouse
In 1882, where was a system for successfully transmitting electricity from a central powerhouse put into use?
In New York City and London
What occurred after a system for successfully transmitting electricity from a central powerhouse put into use in New York City and London?
Other places soon followed
At what speed did the electrical industry grow?
The electrical industry quickly grew
What were used to power huge dynamos?
Waterfalls
What is the term for water-generated power?
Hydroelectric power
How was hydroelectric power transmitted?
It was sent long distances through wires
What were built in many countries to provide artificial sources of waterpower?
Dams
In the late 1800s, how was large-scale production and transmission of electricity viewed?
As reality
What did electric motors replace?
Steam engines in factories
Where were steam engines most likely used?
Only in those places where hydroelectric power was unavailable or too expensive
What did the development of electrical power inspire?
Other inventions
Who made an important advance in the field of communications?
In the 1870s American inventor Alexander Graham Bell
What did Bell conduct?
Bell transmitted the human voice over a long distance by means of an electrical circuit through a wire
What did Bell do with his invention in 1876?
Bell patented his telephone
Who developed a way to send messages through space without wires?
In 1895 an Italian named Guglielmo Marconi
Marconi's invention was based on the work of which two earlier scientists?
James Clerk Maxwell of Great Britain and Heinrich Rudolph Hertz of Germany`
What had Maxwell made?
A mathematical study of electricity and magnetism
In 1873, what did Maxwell assert?
The existence of invisible electromagnetic waves that travel through space at the speed of light
In the 1880s, what did Hertz prove?
The existence of such waves [electromagnetic waves that travel through space at the speed of light] by sending and receiving them
What did Hertz also measure?
The length and speed of the electromagnetic waves that travel through space at the speed of light
What did Marconi invent?
Instruments for sending and receiving these radio waves [electromagnetic waves that travel through space at the speed of light], as they came to be called
What did Marconi's wireless telegraph became very important for?
Ship-to-ship and ship-to-shore communication
In 1901, what did Marconi send?
The first wireless message across the Atlantic ocean
"Shortly before mid-day I placed the single earphone to my ear and started listening. . . . The answer came at 12:30 when I heard, faintly but distinctly, pip-pip-pip. . . . The result meant
much more to me than the mere successful realization of an experiment. . . . I now felt for the first time absolutely certain that the day would come when mankind would be able to send messages without wires not only across the Atlantic but between the farthermost ends of the earth."
Guglielmo Marconi, from Scrapbook 1900-1941

This is how Marconi later described sending the first wireless message across the Atlantic ocean
What was the other type of power that became important in the 1800s, besides electricity?
The electric motor
Although useful, how was the electric motor limited?
The electric motor, although useful, was limited because it had to remain connected to its power supply
What were electric motors impractical for?
Moving vehicles
In the late 1800s, what did several European inventors develop?
Engines that carried their own supply of oil or gasoline to power a vehicle
What is the term for engines that carried their own supply of oil or gasoline to power a vehicle?
Internal combustion engines
Why was the name. "internal combustion engines", appropriate?
Because the combustion, or burning, of fuel took place inside a closed cylinder
How did internal combustion engines differ from the steam engine?
Thus they differed from the steam engine, in which combustion takes place outside the cylinder
What pioneers were included in the field of internal combustion engines?
Gottlieb Daimler and Karl Benz of Germany and Etienne Lenoir of France
Who built the first successful gasoline-driven automobile in the United States?
In 1893 Charles and Frank Duryea
What occurred fifteen years after Charles and Frank Duryea built the first successful gasoline-driven automobile in the United States?
Fifteen years later American inventor Henry Ford produced his first commercially successful automobile, the Model T
Since the 1700s, what had people used to float above the ground?
Balloons filled with gases lighter than air
Beginning in the 1800s, what did inventors try to create?
A heavier-than-air machine that would actually fly
Who were the first people to achieve a sustained, controlled flight in a powered airplane?
Wilbur and Orville Wright
Where did Wilbur and Orville Wright's historic flight take place?
In Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, in 1903
How did the Wright brothers succeed?
By combining science with technology
What had Wilbur and Orville Wright studied?
Aerodynamics
What was the term for the scientific principles governing the movement of air around objects?
Aerodynamics
In addition to aerodynamics, what did Wilbur and Orville Wright do to propel their plane through the air?
They then used the technology of the internal combustion engine to propel their plane through the air.
What have been in use for thousands of years?
Petroleum—that is, crude oil—and its products
What did Ancient Egyptians occasionally use crude oil for?
Ancient Egyptians occasionally used pitch, a thick, sticky form of oil, as a coating for mummies
What did the Babylonians occasionally use crude oil for?
The Babylonians used pitch to build walls and pave streets
What created a great demand for petroleum?
During the 1800s the kerosene lamp and the internal combustion engine
What is the use for petroleum today?
Today petroleum powers cars, airplanes, and ships. It generates heat and electricity.
What do petroleum products include?
Detergents, plastics, cosmetics, and fabrics
Who sparked the new petroleum industry?
Petroleum represented a new industry in the 1870s, when John D. Rockefeller organized the Standard Oil Company
What did petroleum quickly become?
It quickly became an essential element of American and worldwide industrialization