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20 terms

Nuclear Chemistry/Physics Study Guide: Chapter 10 Nuclear Chemistry

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radioactivity
is the process in which an unstable atomic nuclus emits charged particles and energy
radioisotopes
an atom containing an unstable nucleus
nuclear radiation
is charged particles and energy that are emitted from the nuclei of raidioisotopes
alpha particle
is a positively charged particle made up of two protons and two neutrons
beta particle
an electorn emitted by an unstable nulceus
gamma ray
is a penetrating ray of energy emitted by an unstable nucleus
background radiation
nuclear radiation that occurs naturaly in the enviorment
Geiger counter
uses a gas filled tube to measure lonizing radiation
half-life
is the time required for one half oa a sample of a radioisotope to decay
radioactive dating and radiocarbon dating
the age of an object is determined by comparing the object's carbo 14 levels with carbon-14 levels in the atmosphere
transmutation
is the conersion of atoms of one element to atoms of another
particle accelerators
in order for scientistist to have the radioactive element radium was used as alpha particles must use partivle acceleraters
transuranium elements
elemnets with atomic number greater than 92
strong nuclear force
the attravive force that binds protons and neutrons toghther in the nucleus
fission vs. fusion
the splitting of an atomic nucleus into smaller parts vs. a process in which nuclei of tow atoms combine to form a large nucleus
Albert Einstein's mass-energy equation
E= mc^2
chain reaction
neutrons released during the splitting of an initial nucleus have a series of nuclear fissions
critical mass
the smallest possible mass of a fissionable material that can sustain a chain reaction
plasma
is a state of matter in which atoms have been stripped of their electrons
tracers
map out specific locations in the body