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50 terms

Chapter 23: The Digestive System

Pearson Human Anatomy & Physiology, Marieb/Hoehn
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In order to prevent self-digestion of the pancreas activation of pancreatic proteases occurs in the
Duodenum
During deglutition, the bolus passes into the stomach from the esophagus through the
gastroesophageal sphincter.
During the intestinal phase of gastric regulation,
the stomach is initially stimulated, and later inhibited.
Protective collections of lymphocytes and macrophages occur in
the Peyer's patches.
Starch is chemically digested by enzymes produced in the
salivary glands and pancreas.
Swallowing reflexes begin when receptors are stimulated by food in this structure.
Pharynx
Blood flows into the liver via the ___________ and ___________, while blood exits the liver via the ______________.
Hepatic portal vein; hepatic artery; hepatic vein
The function of a lacteal is to
absorb lipids.
The major outcome that occurs through mechanical digestive activities is
an increase in the surface area of food by breaking it into smaller fragments.
What is the main organic molecule digested in the stomach?
Proteins
The propulsive function that occurs in the esophagus is called
peristalsis.
The stimulus for the release of pancreatic enzymes is
The presence of chyme containing proteins and fats in the duodenum.
This structure is a modified portion of the small intestine mucosa that greatly increases the absorptive surface area.
Villus
Which activity below is a mixing action that exposes materials to secretions and absorptive surfaces?
Segmentation
Which is a function of the large intestine?
Absorption of water, ions, and some vitamins
Which of the following is a characteristic of the large intestine?
It contains a large number of bacteria.
Which regulatory chemical stimulates gastric gland activity and motility?
Gastrin
Which sequence below represents the correct layering of the wall of the GI tract beginning with the layer next to the lumen?
Mucosa - submucosa - muscularis externa - serosa
Which substance or occurrence would directly decrease gastric activity?
Distention of duodenum
Which of the following is NOT part of the digestive tract?
Salivary glands
The ampulla of Vater (a.k.a. hepatopancreatic ampulla) is formed from the union of the
common bile duct and pancreatic duct
What would be the effect of stripping the small intestines of their villi?
Decreased surface area for absorption would cause weight loss to occur.
Which of the following products does the stomach produce?
HCl and intrinsic factor
The final product of carbohydrate digestion is
monosaccharides.
Which of the following cells produce HCl?
Parietal cells
Which of the following cells produce pepsinogen?
Chief cells
Most absorption takes place in the ______.
jejunum
The digestive system in a cadaver is longer than in a living person because in a cadaver there is no
muscle tone.
________________ is the major means of propulsion in the digestive system.
Peristalsis
The short reflexes in the digestive system are stimulated by
the enteric plexuses.
Which of the following statements about the mesentery is incorrect?
It is composed of a layer of serous membrane fused with a layer of mucus membrane.
All of the following organs are retroperitoneal except the
duodenum.
Which of the following arteries is not a branch of the celiac trunk?
the hepatic portal track
Which of the following is the most common cause of peritonitis?
burst appendix
Particularly large collections of lymphoid follicles are found in the pharynx and the
large intestine.
The myxovirus causes
mumps.
Halitosis is caused by
increased activity of anaerobic bacterial activity at the back of the tongue.
Which of the following teeth are most commonly impacted?
wisdom teeth
___________ is the strongest material in the body.
Enamel
Which of the following conditions is directly associated with an increased risk for heart disease and stroke?
periodontitis
Lingual lipase is present in
saliva.
The "mucosal barrier" involves all of the following mechanisms except
secretions from chief cells.
The only stomach function that is essential to life is
the secretion of intrinsic factor.
The ___________ phase of gastric secretion is considered a conditioned reflex.
cephalic
Which of the following would not directly stimulate the secretion of gastrin?
a low pH of gastric content
HCl secretion is stimulated by the binding of all of the following substances except
norepinephrine.
Which of the following intestinal hormones is not part of the enterogastrone?
gastrin
Hollow organs like the stomach that act as reservoirs exhibit
plasticity.
Many of the early food allergies seen in infants are due to
absorption of whole proteins.
A condition that affects the large bowel, but has no physiological or anatomical cause is
irritable bowel.