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33 terms

3rd six weekd vocab bio

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Cell cycle
he sequence of growth and division of a cell
Interphase
the majority of a cell's life is spent in the growth period
Mitosis
following interphase, a cell enters its period of nuclear division
Diploid
a cell with two of each kind of chromosome
Haploid
a cell containing one of each kind of chromosome
Meiosis
cell division, produces gametes containing half the number of chromosomes as a parent's body cell
Crossing over
exchange of genetic material between nonsister chromatids from homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis; results in new allele combinations
DNA replication
proess in which chromosomal DNA is copied before mitosis or meiosis
Negative feedback loop
regulation of the endocrine system is controlled most often through one type of internal feedback mechanism
ex. maintains homeostasis
Cancer
a malignant growth resulting from uncontrolled cell division
Heredity
the passing on of characteristics from parents to offspring
Traits
characteristics that are inherited
Genetics
the branch of biology that studies heredity
Allele
different gene forms
Gene
a segment of DNA that controls the production of a protein
Genotype
the allele combination an organism contains
Dominant
observed trait of an organism that masks the reessive form of a trait
Recessive
trait of an organism that can be masked by the dominant form of a trait
Hmozygous
organism is homozygous for a trait if its two alleles for the trait are the same
Heterozygous
an organism is heterozygous for a trait if its two alleles for the trait differ from each other
11-28 Phenotype
the way an organism looks and behaves
F1 generation
the first generation of offspring obtained from an experimental cross of two organisms
F2 generation
the second generation of offspring, obtained from an experimental cross of two organisms; the offspring of the F1 generation
Monohybrid cross
hybridization using a single trait with two alleles (as in Mendel's experiments with garden peas)
dihybrid cross
hybridization using two traits with two alleles each
incomplete dominance
one allele is not completely dominant over the other allele
codominant alleles
pairs of alleles that both affect the phenotype when present in a heterozygote
sex-linked traits
traits that are inherited with sex chromosomes
law of segregation
members of a pair of homologous chromosomes separate during the formation of gametes and are distributed to different gametes so that every gamete receives only one member of the pair
law of independent assortment
each member of a pair of homologous chromosomes separates independently of the members of other pairs so the results are random
DNA replication
the process of making a copy of DNA
transition
the act of passing from one state or place to the next
translation
the act of uniform movement