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Cell cycle

he sequence of growth and division of a cell


the majority of a cell's life is spent in the growth period


following interphase, a cell enters its period of nuclear division


a cell with two of each kind of chromosome


a cell containing one of each kind of chromosome


cell division, produces gametes containing half the number of chromosomes as a parent's body cell

Crossing over

exchange of genetic material between nonsister chromatids from homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis; results in new allele combinations

DNA replication

proess in which chromosomal DNA is copied before mitosis or meiosis

Negative feedback loop

regulation of the endocrine system is controlled most often through one type of internal feedback mechanism
ex. maintains homeostasis


a malignant growth resulting from uncontrolled cell division


the passing on of characteristics from parents to offspring


characteristics that are inherited


the branch of biology that studies heredity


different gene forms


a segment of DNA that controls the production of a protein


the allele combination an organism contains


observed trait of an organism that masks the reessive form of a trait


trait of an organism that can be masked by the dominant form of a trait


organism is homozygous for a trait if its two alleles for the trait are the same


an organism is heterozygous for a trait if its two alleles for the trait differ from each other

11-28 Phenotype

the way an organism looks and behaves

F1 generation

the first generation of offspring obtained from an experimental cross of two organisms

F2 generation

the second generation of offspring, obtained from an experimental cross of two organisms; the offspring of the F1 generation

Monohybrid cross

hybridization using a single trait with two alleles (as in Mendel's experiments with garden peas)

dihybrid cross

hybridization using two traits with two alleles each

incomplete dominance

one allele is not completely dominant over the other allele

codominant alleles

pairs of alleles that both affect the phenotype when present in a heterozygote

sex-linked traits

traits that are inherited with sex chromosomes

law of segregation

members of a pair of homologous chromosomes separate during the formation of gametes and are distributed to different gametes so that every gamete receives only one member of the pair

law of independent assortment

each member of a pair of homologous chromosomes separates independently of the members of other pairs so the results are random

DNA replication

the process of making a copy of DNA


the act of passing from one state or place to the next


the act of uniform movement

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