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cell division, produces gametes containing half the number of chromosomes as a parent's body cell
exchange of genetic material between nonsister chromatids from homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis; results in new allele combinations
Negative feedback loop
regulation of the endocrine system is controlled most often through one type of internal feedback mechanism
ex. maintains homeostasis
an organism is heterozygous for a trait if its two alleles for the trait differ from each other
the first generation of offspring obtained from an experimental cross of two organisms
the second generation of offspring, obtained from an experimental cross of two organisms; the offspring of the F1 generation
hybridization using a single trait with two alleles (as in Mendel's experiments with garden peas)
law of segregation
members of a pair of homologous chromosomes separate during the formation of gametes and are distributed to different gametes so that every gamete receives only one member of the pair
law of independent assortment
each member of a pair of homologous chromosomes separates independently of the members of other pairs so the results are random
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