Terms in this set (86)
Delegate from Massachusets, George Washington's Vice President, 2nd President of the United States, conservative Federalist, major negotiator for the Peace Treaty with Great Britain
John Quincy Adams
(July 11, 1767 - February 23, 1848) was the sixth President of the United States from 1825 to 1829. He was also an American diplomat and served in both the Senate and House of Representatives. He was a member of the Federalist, Democratic-Republican, National Republican, and later Anti-Masonic and Whig parties. Adams was the son of President John Adams and Abigail Adams. Adams was involved in many international negotiations, and helped formulate the Monroe Doctrine as Secretary of State.
Alien and Sedition Acts
four bills passed in 1798 by the Federalists in the 5th United States Congress during an undeclared naval war with France, later known as the Quasi-War. They were signed into law by President John Adams. Proponents claimed the acts were designed to protect the United States from alien citizens of enemy powers and to prevent seditious attacks from weakening the government.
1786, a meeting at Annapolis, Maryland of 12 delegates from five states (New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Virginia) that called for a constitutional convention. They produced a report which was sent to the Congress and to the states. The report asked support for a broader meeting to be held the next May in Philadelphia.
dictate that the central governing authority of a nation should be equal or inferior to, but not having more power than, its sub-national states (state government).
Articles of Confederation
First Constitution of the U.S., 1777, states were given more power than the federal govt.
Alexander Hamilton's, working as the treasurer, the assumption state debts by the federal govt. Jefforson and Madison didnt agree, but they ended up compromising, they grew the debts from the revolution.
Bargain and corruption
Battle of New Orleans
January 8, 1815 and was the final major battle of the War of 1812. American forces, commanded by Major General Andrew Jackson, defeated an invading British Army intent on seizing New Orleans and the vast territory America had acquired with the Louisiana Purchase. The Treaty of Ghent had been signed on December 24, 1814, but news of the peace would not reach the combatants until February. The battle is widely regarded as the greatest American land victory of the war
Charles A. Beard
historian, wrote a book called Economic Origins of the Constitution, said the founding fathers made constitution not because they wanted strong govt, they were purely interested in their own economic interest, felt like they needed to protect their wealth.
Just as the American Revolution threatened to break out, he returned to the colonies and offered his services to the state of Pennsylvania. In August 1775, the Pennsylvania Committee of Safety placed Biddle in command of the armed galley Franklin.
Bill of Rights
first ten amendments, introduced by James Madison to the First United States Congress in 1789 as a series of legislative articles, and came into effect as Constitutional Amendments on December 15, 1791, through the process of ratification by three-fourths of the States. The Bill of Rights is a series of limitations on the power of the United States Federal government, protecting the natural rights of liberty and property including freedom of speech, a free press, free assembly, and free association. In federal criminal cases,
served as the third Vice President of the United States (1801-1805) under President Thomas Jefferson, and was the first Vice President to never serve as President. He fought in the Revolutionary War, was an important political figure in the nation's early history, and spent much of his career after politics engaging in a number of controversial adventures. Killed Alexander Hamilton in a duel in New Jersey. Burr and Himilton grew up together, Burr felt his honor was lost, he was vice president at the time. Jefferson wanted madison to become president instead of Burr.
John C. Calhoun
7th vice president, A representative leader of the Scotch-Irish in South Carolina, he served as Vice President under John Quincy Adams and under Andrew Jackson, was the first Vice President to have been born after the American Revolution, and was the first Vice President to resign from office. major states rights.
Charles River Bridge case
case regarding the Charles River Bridge and the Warren Bridge of Boston, Massachusetts, heard by the United States Supreme Court under the leadership of Chief Justice Roger B. Taney. The case settled a dispute over the constitutional clause regarding obligation of contract.
1807, started the war of 1812, chesapeake is an american ship, and the leopard was the british ship. the leopard attacked the chesapeake and overtook it. british ship took control. Jefferson was president at the time.
President of the second bank of the u.s., warhawk, from south carolina. speaker of the house during rechartering of the bank,
incident precipitated by the military adventurism of Citizen Edmond-Charles Genêt, a minister to the United States dispatched by the revolutionary Girondist regime of the new French Republic, which at the time was at war with Great Britain and Spain. His activities violated an American proclamation of neutrality in the European conflict and greatly embarrassed France's supporters in the United States.
As a leading war hawk, he favored war with Britain and played a significant role in leading the nation to war in 1812. He was the foremost proponent of the American System, fighting for an increase in tariffs to foster industry in the United States, the use of federal funding to build and maintain infrastructure, and a strong national bank
De Witt Clinton
was an early American politician who served as United States Senator and the sixth Governor of New York. In this last capacity he was largely responsible for the construction of the Erie Canal
Constitution of the U.S
the supreme law of the United States. The Constitution is the framework for the organization of the United States government and for the relationship of the federal government with the states, citizens, and all people within the United States.
took place from May 25 to September 17, 1787, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to address problems in governing the United States of America, which had been operating under the Articles of Confederation following independence from Great Britain.
doctrine of implied powers
gives alot of power to the federal govt. implied means its not said out loud. says that the govt can do what it wants that is necessary and proper.
waterway in New York that runs about 363 miles (584 km) from Albany, New York, on the Hudson River to Buffalo, New York, at Lake Erie, completing a navigable water route from the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes.It was the first transportation system between the eastern seaboard (New York City) and the western interior (Great Lakes) of the United States that did not require portage,
an American political party in the period 1792 to 1816, the era of the First Party System, with remnants lasting into the 1820s. The Federalists controlled the federal government until 1801. The party was formed by Alexander Hamilton, who, during George Washington's first term, built a network of supporters,
a series of 85 articles or essays advocating the ratification of the United States Constitution.
firebell in the night
letter written by Jefferson to a friend about slavery and the missouri comprimise.
First Bank of the United States
overseer, alexander Hamilton's idea. basically wanted a national bank. was opposed by madison and jefferson. 1791. gave more power to the federal govt. instigated the fighting between madison jefferson and hamilton. had a contract for twenty years. renewed under madison, then jackson tore it down.
an American engineer and inventor who is widely credited with developing the first commercially successful steamboat.
was the first United States Secretary of the Treasury, a Founding Father, economist, and political philosopher. Aide-de-camp to General George Washington during the American Revolutionary War, he was a leader of nationalist forces calling for a new Constitution; he was one of America's first Constitutional lawyers, and wrote most of the Federalist Papers, a primary source for Constitutional interpretation.
Hamilton's Report on Manufactures
is the third report, and magnum opus, of American Founding Father and 1st U.S. Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton. It was presented to Congress on December 5, 1791 and recommended economic policies to stimulate the new republic's economy and ensure the independence won with the conclusion of the Revolutionary War in 1783.
Hamilton's Report on the Public Credit
first of three major reports on economic policy issued by American Founding Father and first United States Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton on the request of Congress. The report analyzed the financial standing of the United States of America and made recommendations for the retirement of the national debt. Commissioned by the House of Representatives on September 21, 1789 and presented January 9, 1790, this 140,000-word document was the first proposed federal assumption of debt owed by the states.
was an event spanning from December 15, 1814-January 4, 1815 in the United States during the War of 1812 in which New England's opposition to the war reached the point where secession from the United States was discussed. The end of the war with a return to the status quo ante bellum disgraced the Federalist Party, which disbanded in most places.
refers to federally funded public works such as building roads or digging canals. Such improvements were an important point of political debate in the early nineteenth century, when the survival of the American Republic depended on its ability to govern itself effectively and flourish economically
was a military officer of the Continental Army and later the United States Army, and also served as the first United States Secretary of War.
was a treaty between the United States and Great Britain that is credited with averting war, solving many issues left over from the American Revolution and the Treaty of Paris of 1783, and opening ten or more years of mostly peaceful trade between the United States and Britain in the midst of the French Revolutionary Wars that had begun in 1793.
KY and VA Resolutions (or Resolves)
written by madison and jefferson. political documents that argued against the alien and sedition act. saying that it was unconstitutional. important overall because it was a states right doctrine. 1798-99
Lewis and Clark
was the first overland expedition undertaken by the United States to the Pacific coast and back. The expedition team was headed by the United States Army soldiers Meriwether Lewis and William Clark and assisted by George Drouillard who was half Shawnee and half French. The expedition's goal was to gain an accurate sense of the resources being exchanged in the Louisiana Purchase.
politician from new york. federalist.
was the acquisition by the United States of America of 828,800 square miles (2,147,000 km2) of France's claim to the territory of Louisiana in 1803. The U.S. paid 60 million francs ($11,250,000) plus cancellation of debts worth 18 million francs ($3,750,000), for a total cost of 15 million dollars for the Louisiana territory ($217 million in today's currency).
fourth president, before he was a representative.
Marbury v. Madison
supreme court case heard by john marshall, Marbury was offered an appointment by adams and his outgoing sec of state was john marshall. set up fight btw executive and judicial branch. marshall ruled that the judicial act of 1789 was unconstitutional, and jefferson had every right to do what he did. Marbury and Jefferson both lost. Made the supreme court, gave them all power.
chief justice of the supreme court, marshall court,
Maysville Road veto
occurred on May 27, 1830 when President Andrew Jackson vetoed a bill which would allow the Federal government to purchase stock in the Maysville, Washington, Paris, and Lexington Turnpike Road Company, which had been organized to construct a road linking Lexington and the Ohio River, the entirety of which would be in the state of Kentucky
McCulloch v. Maryland
was a landmark decision by the Supreme Court of the United States. The state of Maryland had attempted to impede operation of a branch of the Second Bank of the United States by imposing a tax on all notes of banks not chartered in Maryland
"midnight judicial Appointments"
a way for a president to somewhat keep their political ideas going past their presidency.
was an agreement passed in 1820 between the pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions in the United States Congress, involving primarily the regulation of slavery in the western territories. It prohibited slavery in the former Louisiana Territory north of the parallel 36°30' north except within the boundaries of the proposed state of Missouri.
a United States policy that was introduced on December 2, 1823, which stated that further efforts by European countries to colonize land or interfere with states in the Americas would be viewed, by the United States of America, as acts of aggression requiring US intervention
american statesman, He is widely credited as the author of the document's preamble: "We the People of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union ... " and has been called the 'Penman of the Constitution.
a series of conflicts declared against Napoleon's French Empire and changing sets of European allies by opposing coalitions that ran from 1803 to 1815. As a continuation of the wars sparked by the French Revolution of 1789,
Non-Intercourse Act of 1809
This Act lifted all embargoes on American shipping except for those bound for British or French ports. The intent was to damage the economies of the United Kingdom and France. Like its predecessor, the Embargo Act, it was mostly ineffective, and contributed to the coming of the War of 1812.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
was an act of the Congress of the Confederation of the United States. The primary effect of the ordinance was the creation of the Northwest Territory as the first organized territory of the United States out of the region south of the Great Lakes, north and west of the Ohio River, and east of the Mississippi River. On August 7, 1789, the U.S. Congress affirmed the Ordinance with slight modifications under the Constitution.
Panic of 1819
first major financial crisis in the United States, which occurred during the end of the Era of Good Feelings. The new nation faced a depression in the late 1780s (which led directly to the establishment of the dollar and, perhaps indirectly, to the calls for a Constitutional Convention), and another severe economic downturn in the late 1790s following the Panic of 1797
Panic of 1837
a financial crisis in the United States built on a speculative fever. The bubble burst on May 10, 1837 in New York City, when every bank began to accept payment only in specie (gold and silver coinage). This was based on the assumption by former president, Andrew Jackson, that government was selling land for state bank notes of questionable value.
Peggy Eaton Affair
was an 1830-1831 U.S. scandal involving members of President Andrew Jackson's Cabinet and their wives. Although it started over a private matter, it affected the political careers of several men.
degrading term for state banks selected by the U.S. Department of Treasury to receive surplus government funds in 1833. They were also named "Wildcat Banks". They were made among the big U.S. bank when President Andrew Jackson vetoed the recharter for the Second Bank of the United States, proposed by Daniel Webster and Henry Clay four years in advance in 1832
established intentions of friendship between the United States and Spain. It also defined the boundaries of the United States with the Spanish colonies and guaranteed the United States navigation rights on the Mississippi River.
flows into the Chesapeake Bay, located along the mid-Atlantic coast of the United States.
Power of judicial review
ex marbury vs. madison. the idea that the supreme court can look at what the other two branches did and declare it unconstitutional.
"Revolution of 1800"
Vice President Thomas Jefferson defeated incumbent president John Adams. The election was a realigning election that ushered in a generation of Republican Party rule and the eventual demise of the Federalist Party in the First Party System.
right of deposit
Second Bank of the United States
chartered in 1816, five years after the First Bank of the United States lost its own charter. The Second Bank of the United States was initially headquartered in Carpenters' Hall, Philadelphia, the same as the First Bank, and had branches throughout the nation.
a fund established by a government agency or business for the purpose of reducing debt by repaying or purchasing outstanding loans and securities held against the entity. It helps keep the borrower liquid so it can repay the bondholder.
an armed uprising in central and western Massachusetts (mainly Springfield) from 1786 to 1787. The rebellion is named after Daniel Shays, a veteran of the American Revolution who led the rebels, known as "Shaysites" or "Regulators". Most of Shays' compatriots were poor farmers angered by crushing debt and taxes. Failure to repay such debts often resulted in imprisonment in debtor's prisons or the claiming of property by the government.
Henry M. Shreve
was the American inventor and steamboat captain who opened the Mississippi, Ohio and Red rivers to steamboat navigation. Shreveport, Louisiana, is named in his honor.
South Carolina Exposition and Protest
was written in 1828 by John C. Calhoun, the Vice President of the United States under Andrew Jackson. Calhoun did not formally state his authorship at the time, though it was known.
The document was a protest against the Tariff of 1828, also known as the Tariff of Abominations. The document stated that if the tariff was not repealed, South Carolina would secede
Steamboat New Orleans
New Orleans was the first steamboat on the western waters of the United States. Its 1811-1812 voyage from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania to New Orleans, Louisiana on the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers ushered in the era of commercial steamboat navigation on the western rivers.
Roger B. Taney
was the fifth Chief Justice of the United States, holding that office from 1836 until his death in 1864, and was the first Roman Catholic to hold that office or sit on the Supreme Court of the United States. He was also the eleventh United States Attorney General. He is most remembered for delivering the majority opinion in Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857), that ruled, among other things, that African Americans, being considered "of an inferior order and altogether unfit to associate with the white race" at the time the Constitution was drafted, could not be considered citizens of the United States.
"Tariff of Abominations"
was a protective tariff passed by the Congress of the United States on May 19, 1828 designed to protect industry in the northern United States. the effects it had on the antebellum Southern economy and led to the Nullification Crisis.
compromise between Southern and Northern states reached during the Philadelphia Convention of 1787 in which three-fifths of the population of slaves would be counted for enumeration purposes regarding both the distribution of taxes and the apportionment of the members of the United States House of Representatives. It was proposed by delegates James Wilson and Roger Sherman.
"Trail of Tears"
the forcible relocation and movement of Native Americans, including many members of the Cherokee, Creek, Seminole, and Choctaw nations among others in the United States, from their homelands to Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma) in the Western United States.
Undeclared Naval War with France
fought entirely at sea between the United States and French Republic from 1798 to 1800.
Martin Van Buren
8th president of the u.s. and the first president not of British descent—his family was Dutch. He was the first president to be born an American citizen
the arrogant politicians who believed they could beat Britain again. they were pushing to go to war with britain. alot of them were republicans.
War of 1812
British Army is defeated on land,
was a leading American statesman during the nation's Antebellum Period. He first rose to regional prominence through his defense of New England shipping interests. His increasingly nationalistic views and the effectiveness with which he articulated them led Webster to become one of the most famous orators and influential Whig leaders of the Second Party System.
was a region on the north shore of the Gulf of Mexico, which underwent several boundary and sovereignty changes during its history. West Florida was first established in 1763 by the British colonial government; as its name suggests it largely consisted of the western portion of the region then known as Florida, with East Florida comprising the eastern part
was a tax protest in Pennsylvania in the 1790s, during the presidency of George Washington. The conflict was rooted in western dissatisfaction with a 1791 excise tax on whiskey.
was an American inventor best known for inventing the cotton gin. This was one of the key inventions of the Industrial Revolution and shaped the economy of the antebellum South.[
was a diplomatic event that strained relations between France and the United States, and led to an undeclared naval war called the Quasi-War. It took place from March of 1798 to 1800.
"year without a summer"
was 1816, in which severe summer climate abnormalities destroyed crops in Northern Europe, the Northeastern United States and eastern Canada. Average global temperatures decreased about 0.4-0.7 °C (0.7-1.3 °F), enough to cause significant agricultural problems around the globe
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