(GCSE) AQA Geography - Key Terms
Terms in this set (109)
Two plates moving towards each other
Two plates moving away from each other
Two plates moving past each other or in the same direction at different speeds
Formed at a destructive boundary when sedimentary rocks are forced upwards to form mountains
thicker and less dense made of granite
thinner and more dense made of basalt
Alternating layers of lava and ash, steep, lava thick and slow, less frequent but violent eruptions, generally found and subduction zones on destructive margins
Made only of lava, wide area, low and flat, lava is runny, form at constructive plate margins and hot spots
Made only of lava, steep, lava is thick, violent eruptions, generally found on destructive plate margins
Super heated lava and ash gas
Volcanic mud slide
Can be predicted by measuring escaping gas (high sulfur about to erupt)
Can be predicted by changes in the shape of the land using tilt meter (big bulges about to erupt)
Can be predicted by fore shocks/mini earthquakes
Can be predicted by animal activity (restlessness and agitation)
Measures earth quakes in terms of energy release, measured using a seismometer, it's logarithmic so 5 is 10x more powerful than 4
Measures earth quakes in terms of eye witness accounts, observations can come from words or photos, not as accurate
Caused by a jerk made by tension between plates being released
The point in the earth where the earthquake starts
Point above above the focus on the earths surface
Counts as an export so its good for the economy, creates jobs which increases GDP, positive multiplier effect present in all sectors of production, can be conducted in poor countries
Increase in tourism
This has happened because of IIIP, income, internet, infrastructure, paid holiday
Three types of tourism
City breaks, mountain, coast
A graph which has 7 stages - EIDCSR/D: exploration, involvement, development, consolidation, stagnation, rejuvenation or decline, best example of this is Grasmere.
Tourism which is organised and is designed to cater for a large number of people
Tourism in a _, people do it for the risks, wildlife and scenery and its being facilitated by adventure holiday packages and caused by an increase in infrastructure and disposable income
Tourism which doesn't harm the environment and benefits the population thus is sustainable
Huge areas of land on the rural urban fringe used for leisure facilities with large car parks, land is cheap so its creating alot of pressure
Areas where town workers live in the countryside, this is becoming more popular because of the tranquil setting making more pressure
Walking and cycling areas
The use of vacant land and property within a built-up area for further construction or development
Suburbanisation: Individual new houses are attached to the village edge, non residential buildings are converted into houses, vacant land may be used for infilling, growth is minimal.
Suburbanisation: Development along the roads
Suburbanisation: Huge amounts of land in between roads is filled with modern housing developments, this is large growth and significantly harms village characteristics
Protected area of country side around cities to stop expansion, one is around London
Environmental Stewardship Scheme
Protects 5 million hectares, pays farmers to protect the environment
English Woodland Grant Scheme
Plants trees and funds conservation projects in forests
Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty
49 heavily protected areas
National Nature Reserve
210 reserves e.g the chilterns
England Rural Development programme
£3.9bil spent in the diversification (different stuff than farming) of rural economies
European convergence objective
£55mil spent on Cornwall and the isle of Scilly for things linking them to the wider EU and UK markets
Business links network
Helping small rural businesses start and compete
Improving connections to prevent isolation
Large scale, highly efficient and heavily invested farming which aims to make large profit margins
No pesticides or insecticides
Common Agricultural Policy
Gives an annual £34bil to farmers to steward the land and guarantees them a minimum price per crop
Artificial watering of the land
Deposition of solid salts on the ground surfaces following evaporation, associated with irrigation
Gross National Income
Uses life expectancy, literacy rates, education and income per person to give a more accurate development indicator
Rich Industrial Countries
The most developed countries e.g Germany
Newly Inustrialising Countries
Moving from primary to secondary sector e.g China
Oil Exporting Countries
Extremely wealthy countries on paper but most suffer from huge income inequalities e.g Saudi Arabia
Heavily Indebted Poor Countries
Poorest, least developed countries in the world e.g Zimbabwe
Former Communist Country
As a result of having a planned economy they have good infrastructure and health care however they are handicapped by a weak private sector so aren't developing as fast e.g Romania
Quality of life
How happy you are: suicide rates, crime rates, pollution, life expectancy e.g Caribbean is highly scored
Standard of living
Your material wealth: Cars, houses, private education, GNI e.g Los Angeles
Government members physically taking money out the system
No money changes hands but the government doesn't act in the best interests of the people e.g a teacher not turning up to school
Aims to achieve better prices, decent working conditions and fair terms of trade for farmers and workers.
In return for some debt abolition, the country protects some of its environment
The type of aid coordinated by government or international organisations, donor feels in control, lots of money into large projects however ordinary people usually don't benefit
government or international organisations
Who coordinates top down aid
The type of aid coordinated by NGOs, they work with recipient communities, money isn't lost to corruption, appropriate technology used, however funding is subject to change due to economic powers
Who coordinates bottom up aid
Sharp-edged two-sided ridge on the top of a mountain
Waves erode coastline by throwing pebbles against cliff faces.
Ridge of sand or shingle across the entrance to a bay or river mouth.
Sloping area of sand and shingle between the high and low water marks.
All materials deposited by ice, usually clay containing sharp-edged boulders of many sizes.
Hollow at the bottom of a cliff eroded by waves.
Steep rock outcrop along a coast.
Gently breaking wave with a strong swash and weak backwash.
Circular hollow, high on a mountainside, surrounded by steep rocky walls except for a rock lip on the open side.
Powerful wave with a weak swash and strong backwash.
Amount of water in a river at any one time.
Wearing away the land surface by hydraulic action, abrasion, attrition and solution.
Flat land built of silt on the sides of a river, usually in its lower course.
Water covering land that is normally dry after a river bursts its banks.
U-shaped valley, with flat floor and steep sides, formed by a valley glacier.
Steep narrow valley, with rocky sides.
Tributary valley, high above the main valley floor, with a waterfall.
Hard engineering strategies
Strong construction methods to hold floodwater back or keep it out.
Erosion of rocks by the force of moving water in waves.
Moving mass of ice that covers all the land over a wide area.
Raised bank along the sides of a river, made of silt from river floods.
Bend in a river, usually along its middle or lower course.
Materials deposited by ice, with different names according to where they were deposited.
Semi-circular lake on the flood plain of a river, a cut-off meander.
All moisture that reaches the Earth's surface from the atmosphere.
Long and narrow lake in the floor of a glaciated valley.
Soft engineering strategies
More natural ways to reduce the impact of flooding on humans, with less intervention and more preparation.
Deep grooves in surface rocks, made by the sharp edges of stones carried in the bottom of moving ice.
Circular lake in a corrie hollow, where water is trapped by the steep sides and rock lip.
Higher areas on the straight rocky sides of a glaciated valley.
Giant sea wave travelling at high speed.
A moving mass of ice confined in a valley
Physical Quality Life Index
A mass of falling rocks, snow and ice falling rapidly down a mountainside
Development which meets the need of the present with out compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs
Stage 1 of Butler's model
Stage 2 of Butler's model
Stage 3 of Butler's model
Stage 4 of Butler's model
Stage 5 of Butler's model, 2 options after rejuvenation or decline
Aid that is given directly to the recipient by one country
Aid that passes through multiple hand and then from a international organisation to the recipients
Responsible use and the protection of the natural environment through using sustainable practices
Aid that requires the money to be spent effectively back into the donor country through exports etc
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