Barrington chapter 1
Terms in this set (62)
Power exercised through legitimacy rather than through coercion, though some comparative politics scholars use the term interchangeably with power.
A research project which looks at only one case.
A relationship between two or more variables where changes in the presence or value of one or more of them brings a change in the presence or value of another.
Power based on the personal attachment of the masses to a particular leader.
A broad approach to studying politics that seeks to explain political outcomes by looking at the effects of individual political actors and gaining an understanding of their decision-making process.
A designation of official membership that a state confers to most of its permanent population, carrying rights and responsibilities not afforded noncitizens.
A nation whose members are united by multiethnic cultural features and citizenship in the state rather than by shared ethnic identity.
The ability to influence through the use of rewards and punishments.
A research design which seeks to understand the effects of a particular dependent variable by examining a small number of cases. The small number of carefully selected cases improves generalizability and control over single case studies, but also allows one to look more in depth at each case than one can in "large N" studies.
A field of political science that engages in the systematic study of political outcomes through the comparison of different cases.
A scholar who focuses on domestic politics at the national level outside the United States.
The way that a researcher thinks about a particular concept, including which aspects are most important to consider when studying it.
critical case study
A study in which the case is selected because it provides a tough test of the central hypothesis or hypotheses in the researcher's study. As a result, findings consistent with the hypothesis are more generalizable than those produced from other case studies.
In a causal relationship, the outcome the investigators seek to explain.
deviant case study
A project that examines a particular research question in a case that exhibits characteristics very different from a generally-known pattern. Understanding why such an "outlier" exists may give researchers new insight into the topic of their study.
The status of a person who holds official citizenship in more than on state.
An error resulting from assuming that general trends or observations of groups are also relevant to particular events or actions of specific individuals.
A nation whose national identity is based on its ethnic identity.
The extent to which the findings of a particular study would hold up if data from other cases—not examined in the study—were analyzed. The greater the sense that the findings would apply to a large number of cases, the greater the external validity.
Not by definition true. A hypothesis must be falsifiable.
In its broad meaning, the set of individuals who produce policy decisions on behalf of the state, including the roles those individuals play and the institutions in which they function; in its narrow meaning, the leading policy-making officials such as a prime minister and cabinet at a given time in a particular country.
A tentative statement by a researcher about the expected relationship between what the researcher is seeking to understand and what the researcher is examining as a potential cause or causes. The researcher tests the hypothesis by collecting and analyzing data about the effect and its suspected cause.
A pure form of a concept that may never be realized in practice.
In a causal relationship, something investigators use to explain the outcome, whose value or existence is not affected by the set of factors under examination.
The soundness of the claims that a researcher makes based on the data the researcher is using.
The international community's acceptance of a state's right to sovereignty.
Authority based on an established set of rules in a political system that govern how political leaders are chosen and how they make policy decisions.
The belief by those obeying commands that those making the commands have the "right to rule."
level of analysis
A choice from a continuum of options—from the individual to the international system—concerning where a researcher will look for data. In comparative politics, the options include individuals, groups of individuals, regions within states, states, regions of states, or the international system as a whole.
most different approach
An approach to the comparative method that examines cases that are very different from one another, but the dependent variable in the study is similar from one case to the next. Their general differences allow the researcher to control for a large number of variables, ruling them out as possible explanations for the dependent variable, which is consistent across the cases.
most similar approach
An approach to the comparative method that examines cases that are very much alike, but the dependent variable in the study varies from one case to the next. Their general similarities allow the researcher to control for a large number of variables, ruling them out as possible explanations for the varying dependent variable.
A large, self-aware segment of society united by shared cultural features and possessing a belief in the right of political control over a particular territory.
An independent state that exists for a single nation, it is the ultimate goal of most nationalists.
A nation's self-awareness and sense of unity.
The pursuit of a set of rights for a nation, including the right of political control over a certain territory.
A leader of a movement based on nationalism.
The ability to influence through the use of legitimacy.
Unwritten rules or expectations of behavior that help govern society.
The establishment of a particular measurement scheme for that concept, allowing one to observe and categorize data about the concept.
A situation in which two or more nations lay claim to the same territory as part or all of their homeland.
An official decision designed to organize people, resolve disputes, or address other collective problems.
The set of activities that organizes individuals, systematically resolves disputes, and maintains order in society through the creation and enforcement of rules and government policy. These decisions involve winners and losers; as a result, politics can also be thought of as the process of deciding "who gets what, when, and how" in a particular society.
Defined by political scientists both as influence—A getting B to do something even if B does not want to engage in that activity—and as the capabilities that allow A to get B to do what A wants.
power as capabilities
The focus on characteristics that would give one the ability to influence important outcomes.
power as influence
The ability of A to get B to do what A wants, even if B does not want to engage in the activity.
Studies that involve a small number of cases. These studies do not lend themselves to statistical analysis.
Studies that involve a large number of cases, allowing the researcher to analyze the data through the use of statistical techniques.
The political system of a state.
A puzzle that does not have an obvious answer and forms the basis for a particular research project. These are generally "why?" questions, inquiring about the reason for a particular outcome.
A form of systematic study undertaken to better understand nature and human behavior. Science relies on empirical data (observations), employs a generally accepted methodology to allow others to replicate findings, and focuses on questions about how things are rather than things ought to be.
single case study
(See case study.)
A large group of people connected through interactions and common traits, such as proximity.
The legal right of a state to conduct its own affairs within its territory; also the actual ability to control the territory.
The basic unit of political organization in the world, combining a permanen population, a defined territory, governing institutions, sovereignty over its territory, and international recognition.
A designation for those who lack citizenship in any state.
An approach that seeks to explain political outcomes by looking at the effects of the underlying economic, social, or political-institutional setting in a country or set of countries. Scholars using this approach do not focus on decision-making process and are generally not interested in a specific decision by a single individual.
A statement that is true by definition.
A group's control of much of what happens in a particular region that is not officially independent.
A political system in which religious leaders hold the main government positions and religious law is the basis of policy decisions.
A set of generally accepted information about how and why phenomena relate to one another in a variety of settings. This "causal story" allows researchers to explain why the particular phenomena they examine are causally related.
Authority based on a leader's familial claim to the throne and/or the belief that God has granted the leader the "divine right to rule."
An item, studied in science, whose existence or value is subject to change.
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