ULTIMATE AP Biology Exam Review
Terms in this set (56)
Define the following: isotope, valence shell, covalent bond, ionic bond
Isotope- one of several atomic forms of an element, each with the same # of protons, but different number of neutrons
Valence shell- the outermost energy shell of an atom, containing valence electrons involved in chemical reactions
Covalent bond- bond where the electrons are shared
Ionic bonds- a chemical bond resulting from the attractions between oppositely charged ions
Hydrogen bonds result in.... pH is...
Hydrogen bonds result in a weak, polar, and covalent bond between a H+ and a negative ion.
pH is the measure of hydrogen ion concentration
How many covalent bonds can carbon form?
Hydrogen bonds form between...
a H+ and a negative ion
pH is a measure of.... What is a buffer?
pH is a measure of ion concentration
A buffer minimizes the changes in a solution when acids and bases are added
What are the differences between catabolic and anabolic reactions?
Catabolic reactions break down complex molecules and anabolic reactions build them up.
What is an isomer? Define structural, geometric, and stereoisomers?
An isomer is when different compounds the same molecular formula but different structure. A structural isomer is an isomer that has different covalent arrangements of their atoms; geometric isomers have the same covalent bonds but differ in spacial arrangment; enatimors mirror images of each other
Name the following functional groups: -OH -C=O -COOH -NH2 -SH -OPO3
Hydroxyl; carbonyl; carboxyl; amino; sulfhydryl; phosphate
What is the general formula for a monosaccharide?
What is the function of monosaccharides?
What are polysaccharides?
What are the differences between glycogen, starch, cellulose, and chitin?
energy storage and structural support
Chain of monosaccarides
Starch (plants) and glycogen (animals) store energy in carbohydrate form, whereas cellulose (plant wall) and chitin (exoskeleton) provide structural support.
What are the structural components of fats, phospholipids, steroids?
Steroids may function as....
Made up of a glyceral moleucule and three fatty acids which include hydrocarbon chains that are nonpolar.
Fats store energy and store twice as many calories/gram as carbohydrates
Phospholipids form the bilayer of cell membranes
Steroids function as a means to liquify the cell membrane to increase permeability and can act as a hormone
Proteins are polymers of...... joined by....
amino acids.......peptide bonds
Describe primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure of proteins
primary the linkage of amino acids; secondary 3D as a result of hydrogen bonding and can form an alpha helix (slinky) or a beta pleated sheet (accordian); tertiary result in a complext globural shape, due to interactions between R groups (hydrophobic interactions, vans der Waals interactions, hydrogen bonds, and disulphide bonds); quaternary results from two or more primary structures to form a quaternary structure
The three parts of a nucleotide are..... A and G are.....; C and T are.....
Ribose sugar, phosphate, and nitrogenous base.
A+G- Purines (bigger) C+T- pyrimidines (smaller)
Energy is defined as.... What is entropy?
Energy is the capacity to cause change. Entropy is disorder
List 8 organelles found in the cell and their functions
Mitochondria- the site of cellular respiration,
a metabolic process that uses oxygen to generate ATP
Chloroplast- found in plants and algae, are the sites of photosynthesis
Nucleus- contains most of the cell's genes
and is usually the most conspicuous organelle
Endoplasmic Recticulum- accounts for more than half of the total membrane in many. The Smooth ER Synthesizes lipids, Metabolizes carbohydrates, Detoxifies drugs and poisons, and Stores calcium ions. The Rough ER - Has bound ribosomes, which secrete glycoproteins (proteins covalently bonded to carbohydrates), Distributes transport vesicles, proteins surrounded by membranes, and Is a membrane factory for the cell
Golgi Apparatus- consists of flattened membranous sacs called cisternae. It Modifies products of the ER, Manufactures certain macromolecules, and Sorts and packages materials into transport vesicles
Plasma membrane- selective barrier that allows sufficient passage of oxygen, nutrients, and waste to service the volume of every cell
Lysosome- a membranous sac of hydrolytic enzymes that can digest
Vacuole- Food vacuoles are formed by phagocytosis. Contractile vacuoles, found in many freshwater protists, pump excess water out of cells. Central vacuoles, found in many mature plant cells, hold organic compounds and water
What are the differences between diffusion and active transport?
Diffusion is the spontaneous movement of particles across the membrane from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. Active transport is the movement of particles from either low to high or high to low, using the help of transport molecules. IT REQUIRES ENERGY
The three steps in respiration are....
Glycolysis starts with.... and produces....
Krebs cycle starts with... and produces....
Where do the following occur:
Glycolysis (cytosol), Krebs cycle (in mitochondrial fluid), Electron Transport Chain (mitochondria fold membrane)
Glucose starts with 2 ATP and 1 glucose and produces 2 pyruvate and a net production of 2 ATP
What are the two major parts of photosynthesis? Where does each part occur?
What enters the light reactions? What is produced?
What enters the Calvin cycle? What is produced?
Light reactions (lumen) and dark reactions (Calvin Cycle (me).
List the phases of mitosis
List the parts of the cell cycle
The phases of mitosis: Interphase (G0, G1, S, G2) and mitosis (prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, cytokinesis)
Define hypoosmotic, hyperosmotic, and isomotic
1. Has a lower concentration of solutes than its surrounding enviorment
2. Has a higher concentration of solutes than its surrounding enviroment
3. Has equal concentration
What is chemiosmosis?
What is photophosphorylation?
The movement of ions across a selectively permeable membrane, down their electrochemical gradient
The use of light energy from photosynthesis to ultimately provide the energy to convert ADP to ATP, thus replenishing the universal energy currency in living things.
What is the difference between meiosis I and meisosis II
Meiosis I includes crossing over and independent assortment, where as II does not. Meiosis I is the transition from a 4n to a 2n, II is a transition from a 2n to an n.
What are the dinfferences between aneuploidy, polyploidy, and structural alterations in chromosomes? What is the difference between a linked and unlinked gene?
Aneuploidy is when there are extra or missing copies of chromosomes. Polyploidy is when you have more than two sets of chromosomes per nucleus. Linked genes are genes that are located on the same chromosome and, as a result, travel together during inheritance and do not reassort in the individual, whereas unlinked genes are not connected and reassort independently meaning they are inherited separately.
List some differences between viruses and bacteria
Bacteria are actually living and are able to produce a cell wall, genetic information, and the other necessary elements to live. Viruses, need a host cell, to "live." When the "live" they really just express their DNA in the host cell.
List the tools and techniques of DNA technology
List some applications of DNA technology
DNA technology employs the tools of restriction enzymes to cut up DNA and DNA ligase to join the fragments back together. Some types of DNA technology are gel electrophoresis, which separates DNA fragments according to their weight in response to electrict poles,; restriction fragment length polymorphisms, which are useful in DNA fingerprinting, as polymorphs account for slight differences in DNA sequences; and polymerase chain reaction, which uses synthetic primers that initiate replication at specific nucleotide sequences proliferating the amount of DNA available. These technologies can be used in criminal investigations, determining paternity, etc.
Describe the three major types of mutations
Describe some causes of mutations
Substitution- when one nucleotide is substituted for another.
Deletion- takes out nucleotide and then everything shifts
Insertion- puts an additional one in
Mutations- are caused by incorrect checking of the DNA by the DNA polymerase. Its rate is increased by radatiation and chemicals called mutagens.
What are the differences between the lytic and lysogenic cycle?
Lytic cyle is when the virus goes in the host and uses the enzymes to replicate its DNA and transcribe it into the host cells DNA, then the host erupts and the virus is spread
Lysogenic cycle- Is when the DNA is replicated by the bacteria, but doesn't explode
Define the following: operon, promoter, structural gene, repressor, inducer, activator
Operon- group of genes that all coordinate to produce something.
Promoter- Where the RNA polymerase latches on to begin transcription
Structural gene- codes for the protein
Repressor- latches onto the promoter to repress gene expression
Inducer/Activator- latches onto the promotor to induce and activate gene expression
List the five conditions necessary for Hardy-Weinburg equilibrium. Give HW formula and state what each term in the equation stands for
No mutations, no gene flow,
No genetic drift, Random Mating, Large Population
Describe some prezygotic and postzygotic barriers to the ability to interbreed. What is allopatric speciation? What is sympatric speciation?
Some prezygotic factors include Habitat Isolation (different habitats, lang and water snakes), Temporal Isolation (different times, skunk mates in two different seasons), Behavioral Isolation (courtship rituals, blue-footed boobies), Mechanical Isolation (morpholigical differences, snail genetalia not aligned), and Gametic Isolation.
Postzygotic factors include Reduced Hybrid Viability (dont fully develop), Reduced Hybrid Fertility (offspring are sterile), and Hybrid Breakdown (after the F1 gen, they become sterile).
Allopatric speciation is speciation resulting from some type of isolation
Sympatric speciation results when the chromosome number becomes different, leading to a new species.
What are the differences between microevolution and macroevolution?
Genetic drift? Gene flow? Selection?
Microevolution is evolution in on a population over several generations, Macroevolution is evolution on a speciation levle.
Genetic Drift- Is varying allele frequencies within a population
Gene Flot- the migration and immigration of species in and out of a population which results in greater allele variation
Natural Selection- selection that benefits a certain trait
List and describe the 5 kingdoms of life
define the following: phototroph, chemotroph, autotroph, and heterotroph
phototroph- uses light for energy
Chemotroph- uses inorganic substances for energy
Autotroph- synthesizes using complex organic molecules
heterotroph- an organism that obtains energy from other organisms
The three main parts of a plant are...
The three basic tissue types in a plant are....
The differences between primary and secondary growth are....
The roots, stem, and leaves. Vascular, Dermal, and Ground. Primary growth is the elongation of the cell whereas Secondary growth is when the sprouts shoot out to collect nutrients.
Compare and contrast transpiration and translocation. What is the difference between xylem and phloem?
Tranpspiration is the loss of water vapor from the surgace of a plant through the stomata. Translocation is the channeling of the sugar through the phloem.
What is photoperiodism? How are short day plans and long day plants different?
Photoperiodism is the physiological response due to daylight. Short day plants flower later in the summer and early fall when the days are shorter whereas long day plants blosom in the early summer when days are getting longer
The 4 major tissue types in animals are...
Epithelial, Nervous, Muscle, and Connective tissue
What are the two main types of immune system defenses in animals?
What is the inflammatory response?
What is the difference between cell-mediated immunity and humoral immunity?
The two main types of immune system defense are humoral and cell-mediated responses.
The inflammatory response is when your vessels vesodialate to let more blood through, which leads to more white blood cells, which results in inflammation
Cell-mediated immunity uses T-cells and takes down any non-you cell. Humoral immunity responds to pathogens in the blood or lymph
What are some of the functions of the vertebrate kidney? What is the difference between an endotherm and an ectotherm?
The vertebrate kidney filters the blood in the animal. It contains nephorns which filter out the waste and keep the nutrients
Describe the peripheral vs. central nervous system. Contrast the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system.
What is the function of glial cells?
Name and describe the parts of a neuron.
The central nervous system- the brain and spinal cord. They interpret the signals.
The peripheral nervous system- The sensory neurons that send out impulses to the CNS and motor neurons that then send out the impulses from the CNS to the effectors
The sympathetic nervous system- The stimulation of activities that prepare the body for action. This is like when the body increases the heart rate, releases sugar from the liver into the blood, etc.
The parasympathetic nervous system- The tranquil activates such as stimulating the secretion of saliva or digestive enzymes into the stomach.
Glial cells- produce myelin sheaths, which then allow the action potential to jump along the axon, so its a quicker reaction
The cell body, which contains the nucleus and other organelles, the dendrites, which are the slender extensions from the cell body that receives the nerve impulses, and the axon, which sends the nerve impulses.
Describe mechanoreceptors, chemoreceptors, and photoreceptors. What is a sarcomere?
Mechanoreceptors- sensory receptors that receive mechanical impulse like touch
Chemoreceptors- they get chemical stimuli like smell and taste
Photoreceptors- they receive light stimuli. Theyre in your eyes
Sarcomere- they do contraction
What are the 4 essential nutrients?
Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acid
Trace the pathway of blood through the heart. Show where the blood is oxygenated and deoxygenated
Blood enters the right atrium from the superior and inferior venae cavae,and the coronary sinus. From right atrium, it goes through the tricuspid valve to the right ventricle.From the right ventricle, it goes through the pulmonary semilunar valves to the pulmonary trunk. From the pulmonary trunk it moves into the right and left pulmonary arteries to the lungs.From the lungs, oxygenated blood is returned to the heart through the
pulmonary veins. From the pulmonary veins, blood flows into the left atrium. From the left atrium, blood flows through the bicuspid (mitral) valve into
the left ventricle. From the left ventricle, it goes through the aortic semilunar valves into the ascending aorta. Blood is distributed to the rest of the body (systemic circulation) from the aorta.
What is plasma? What is its function?
What are the functions of erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets?
The plasma is the liquid part of the blood so they cells have something they are suspended in and can float around in. Its function is to be that medium of transportation.
Erythrocytes- red blood cells that have oxygenated hemoglobin
Leukocytes- they regulate the blood to make sure everything is kosher
Platelets- they are parts of cells that are meant to clot in case of a rupture, so there is a lot of blood loss
What is the difference between systole and diastole?
Systole- the contraction
Diastole- the relaxation
What types of cells contribute to humoral immunity? give function. What types of cells contribute to cell mediated immunity? give function.
B cells help with humoral immunity and produce the necessary things to give humoral immunity to the cell
Cell mediated immunity is done by T- cells which send off specific antigen tags that help with the specificity needed with this type of immunity
How does aldosterone work?
How does the renin-angiotesin system work?
How does antidiuretic hormone (ADH) work?
1. It increases water and NA+ uptake by increasing the permeability
2. increases the water and urine uptake
What is the mechanism of steroid hormoe function?
What is the mechanism of peptide hormone function?
How do secondary messangers work? give two examples of them
1. Usually steroid horomones diffuse through the membrane, through the cytosol, and into the nucleus where they turn on a specific genes activation
2. These are ligands that bind to receptor proteings which in turn set off secondary messangers such as cAMP, that activate a response
3. They trigger a specific enzymes reaction to do something. AMP and cAMP are both secondary messangers
Where is insulin produced? Give three functions of insulin.
Where is glucagon produced? Give two functions of glucagon.
1. Pancreas. stimulate glucose and amino acid transport, while increasing glycogen synthase activity
2. Pancreas. increase blood sugar and store more sugars
Explain why the following are important in animal development: cytoplasmic determinants, gene expression, morphogenesis, pattern formation, positional information, morphogens.
1. Cytoplasmic determinants- A maternal substance, such as a protein or RNA, that when placed into an egg influence the course of early development by regulating the expression of genes that affect that developmental fate of cells.
2. Gene expression- the process by which information encoded in DNA directs the synthesis of proteins or in some cases, RNAs that are not translated into proteins and instead as function as RNAs.
3. Morphogenesis- the development of the form of an organism and its structures
4. Morphogens- provides the positional information in the form of a concentration gradient along an embryonic axis.
5. Pattern formation- the development of a multicellular organism's spatial organization, the arrangement of organs and tissues in their characteristic places in 3D space.
6. Positional formation- Molecular cues that control pattern formation in an animal or plant embryonic structure by indicating a cells location relative to the organisms body axes. These cues elicit a response by genes that regulate development.
What is the difference between the autonomic nervous system and the somatic nervous system?
The autonomic system is about involuntary movement, while the somatic nervous system, is for the muscle movement and other voluntary stuff.
Give the functions and locations of the following parts of the brain: Medualla, pons, cerebellum, reticular formation, thalamus, hypothalamus, cerebral cortex
1. Medulla- Lower brain; with spinal cord and is responsible for functions like breathing and heart rate.
2. Pons- The white bulge that is the part of the brain stem between the medulla and the midbrain and connects various parts of the brain.
3. Cerebellum- Part of the vertebrate hindbrain that is responsible for emotions, nerve signal interpretation, and balance.
4. Reticular formation: a diffuse network of nerve pathways in the brainstem connecting the spinal cord, cerebrum, and cerebellum, and mediating the overall level of consciousness.
5. Thalamus- The part of the vertebrate brain that serves as a main relay center, transmitting information between the spinal cord and the cerebrum.
6. Hypothalamus- Part of the mammalian brain regulates the pituitary gland, the autonomal system, emotional responses, body temperature, water balance, and appetite; located below the thalamus.
7. Cerebral cortex- The outer layer of the cerebrum composed of gray matter and consisting of mainly nerve bodies.
What is demography?
Describe some density dependent factors. Independent factors?
Study of human population.
Density Dependent factors- food droughts, predation, etc. They population density is dependent on these sources
Independent factors- things like soil pH, which affect the population but are independent from the density
What are the differences between exponential growth and logistic growth?
Exponential growth- (r-growth)- Big bang growth, not considering the carrying capacity
Logistic growth- (K-growth)- several offspring and focus on taking care of them. Considerate of the carrying capacity
Describe the 3 types of symbiosis?
What is competition?
What is predation?
Mutualism (+/+), Parasitism (+/-), Commensalism (+/0)
Competition- two organisms compete for the same resources
Predation- one organism kills another for food source
What is trophic structure?
How does energy flow through an ecosystem?
How are chemical elements cycled through an ecosystem?
The organization of plants and animals in a community. From areas of higher energy to ones of lower ones. 10% rule (plants-->animals). Water, nitrogen, and phosphorus, in their respective cycles.
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