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A Cappella

Without instruments or accompaniment


Sound bouncing back and forth

Ars Nova

Group of composers who self- identify with syncopation

Cantus Firmus

One of the required approved tunes from the Liber usualis

The Chordal Style

Singing the same word at different pitches

Discant Organum

When you take a note from the cantus firmus and extend it to add two more parts of original music to it

Duflay, Ockeghem, Isaac, Josquin des Pres, Obrecht

Great flemish composers in Florence


Stomping, earthy, lower class dance songs

Goliard Songs

Anti-religious songs written in church latin, oxymorons


mini piano, plucks strings, Elizabethian instrument of choice

Hildegard von Bingen

Attracted the greatest brains of europe, could do many different things


A round

Liber Usualis

Book of all the songs your allowed to play


4-6 part, a capella, co-ed chorus with one person per part


lots of notes to one syllable

Messe de Notre Dame

first polyphonic complete setting by one composer, Machaut

Claudio Monteverdi

One of the first composers


Texts that are always used in church


Texts that are seasonally used in church

Pavanne/ Galliard

Slower, homophonic, upper class dancing songs

Plain song

Gregorian chant


Early trombone that played the lower singers notes


Woodwind instrument that played the higher singers notes


unexpected accents

Terraced Dynamics

dynamics written in the score (forte, piano etc)


Borrowing stucture to place your music on top of (like writting music on the melisma)


most are composers

Adam de la Halle

most famous trouveres

Bernart de Ventadorn

most famous troubadours


travelling professional entertainers who perform the troubadours and trouveres songs

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