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71 terms

anthropology exam 3 terms

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language
primary means of human communication, spoken and written
call systems
communication systems of nonhuman primates
cultural transmission
transmission through learning, basic to language
productivity
creating new experiences that are comprehensible to other speakers
displacement
describing things and events that are not present
kinesics
study of communication through body movements and facial expressions
phonology
the study of a language's phonemics and phonetics
phonemics
study of sound contracts in a language
phonetics
study of speech sound- what people actually say
morphology
study of morphemes and word construction
lexicon
vocabulary
morphemes
words and their meaningful parts
phoneme
smallest sound contrast that distinguishes meaning
syntax
arrangement of words in phrases or sentences
code switching
language is valued differently in different contexts
diglossia
language with high formal and low informal dialects
ethnic group
one among several culturally distinct groups in a society or region
ethnicity
identification with an ethnic group
status
any posistion that determines where someone fits in society
ascribed status
social status based on little or no choice
achieved status
social status based on choices or accomplishments
class
membership in a statum can theoretically be altered
caste
membership in a stratum is hereditary
race
ethnic group assumed to have a biological basis
racism
discrimination against an ethnic group assumed to have a biological basis
descent
social identity based on ancestry
hypodescent
children assigned to same group as minority parent; one drop rule
nation
society sharing a language, religion, history, territory, ancestry, and kinship
state
stratified society with formal, central government
nation-state
an autonomous political entity, a country
nationalities
ethnic groups that have, once had, or want their own country
assimilation
absorption of minorities within a dominant culture
plural societies
society with economically interdependent ethnic groups
multicultralism
view of cultural diversity as valuable and worth maintaining
prejudice
devaluing a group because of its assumed attributes
stereotypes
fixed ideas-often unfavorable-about what members of a group are like
discrimination
policies and practicies that harm a group and its members
genocide
deliberate elimination of a group through mass murder
ethnocide
destruction of cultures of certain ethnic groups
refugee
people who free a country to escape persecution of war
cultural colonialism
internal domination by one group and its culture or ideology over others
adaptive strategy
means of making a living, productive system
band
basic social unit among foragers; fewer than 100 people; may split seasonally
foraging
hunters and gatherers, first strategy
horticulture
nonindustrial plant cultivation with fallowing
agriculture
cultivation using land and labor continuously and intensively
tribe
food producing society with rudimentary poltical structure
chiefdom
Form of political organization with rule by a hereditary leader who held power over a collection of villages and towns. Less powerful than kingdoms and empires, chiefdoms were based on gift giving and commercial links.
states
society with central govt administrative specialization, and social classes
pastoralists
herders of domesticated animals
pastoral nomadism
annual movement of entire pastoral group with herds
transhumance
only part of population moves seasonally with herds
economy
system of resource production, distribution, and consumption
mode of production
specific set of social relations that organizes labor
means of production
major productive resource (land, labor, technology)
market principle
buying, selling, and valuation based on supply and demand
redistribution
flow of goods into center, then back out, characteristic of chiefdoms
reciprocity
principle of governing exchanging among social equals
generalized reciprocity
exchanges about closely related individuals
balanced reciprocity
midpoint on reciprocity continuum, between generalized and negative
negative reciprocity
potentially hostile exchanges among strangers
potlach
competitive feast on North Pacific Coast of North America
law
legal code of a state society, with trial and enforcement
big man
generous tribal entrepreneur with multivillage support
pantribal sodality
nonkin-based group with regional political significance
age grade
an organized category of people based on age; every individual passes through a series of such categories over his or her lifetime
age set
unisex (usually male) poltical group; indicates everyone born within a certain time span
superordinate
upper, privilledged group in a stratified society
subordinate
lower, underpriveledged group
social control
maintains the social norms and regulates conflict
hegemony
subordinates accept hierarchy as natural