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World History Chapter 10
Terms in this set (63)
the foot of the acropolis. It was an open area used as a marketplace. Artisans, traders, and members of upper class settled near here.
a Greek city-state and the geographic and political center of Greek life. It was made up of farming villages, fields, and orchards grouped around an acropolis.
a fortified hill. At the top stood the temple of the local god.
By 500 BC, it was the greatest military power in Greece. It was located in south-central region of Greece. Its focus was on military.
city-state located on the Aegean coast that had strongest navy.
Slaves oowned by the city-states to work the land because Spartans had little interest in farming. They had to turned over 1/2 of their crops to the ariistocrats who owned the land but lived in the center of the polis.
five managers chosen by the Assembly to take charge of public affairs and guide the education of young Spartans.
merchants and artisans who lived in the villages and worked while aristocrats trained for the army and war.
Council of Elders
men over 60 years old who were chosen to be members for life. It suggested laws to the Assembly and also served as a high court.
nobles that ran Sparta's government and were the only citizens of Sparta.
area where Sparta is
Athenian warships that had three levels of rowers on each side, one above the other. This gave Athens the largest navy in Greece.
A form of government in which a few people have ruling power. They didn't last because fights broke out over who would have power.
A form of government in which country is ruled by a harsh strict leader, who is unpopular. They didn't last because rulers like Draco had too harsh of punishment and the people rebelled.
rule by one leader, such as a king, with complete control. They didn't last because people wanted to play a part in government.
government favoring the equality of all people
a set of rules, Solon made
It consisted of all citizens over 20 years old. They passed laws and decided questions of war and peace
defensive league or protective league the Greek city-states formed to protect themselves from the Persians. Sparta did not join. Athens built and crewed its common navy and later turned into the Athenian Empire.
a rich merchant who effectively changed the government of Athens from an oligarchy after Draco failed. He prepared 1st Athenian constitution, which broke the political power of the rich. He erased all debts and freed all the people who had been forced into enslavement because of debt. He offered citizenship to artisans who were not Athenians and ordered every father to teach his son a trade.
a noble who overthrew the Spartans. He put into effect the world's first democratic constitution. His reforms lasted until the fall of Greece 300 years later.
Greek godess of victory
a noble who made the first attempt to change the government of Athens from an oligarchy. He failed because he gave too harsh of punishments
He took over the Athenian government in 560 BC. He was supported by lower class. He divided large estates among farmers who owned no land. He stated that a person no longer had to own land to be a citizen. He encouraged sculpture and other arts.
Philip II of Macedonia
conquered Greece in 338 B.C. after the city-states decline and Greece was no longered united to fight offer invaders.
They were strongest people in Greece. They focused on the military.
leader who made Athens a center of art, philosophy, literature and architecture. He rebuilt palaces and temples on the Acropolis and built the Parthenon. He built the Long Walls.
had strongest navy
son of King Darius who conquered northern Greece. The Greeks tricked the Persian fleet into sailing into the strait between Athens and Salamis. The strait was too narrow for Perisan ships, so Greeks could defeat them a few at a time. They returned later but were against defeated by the Greeks and the Persian Wars ended.
What was a polis made up of?
farming villages, fields, orchards
What was at top of the Acropolis?
# of citizens in average city-state?
5,000 to 10,000
Rights of Citizens
1. own property
3. hold public office
4. speak for self in court
Where the agora was located?
foot of the acropolis
What Spartan citizens were called?
What happened to unhealthy Spartan babies?
left to die
Focus of life for Spartan males?
Focus of life for Spartan females?
wrestling and racing
Importance of Cleisthenes
first democratic government
How and when Athens lost its power?
Athens was very weak from the Peloponnesian War, 404 BC
What happened in the Poloponnesian War?
The more powerful Athens became, the more resentful other Greek city-states grew. Anti-Athenian feelings spread. Sparta declared war on Athens. Athens surrendered to Sparta. It lasted 30 years. Not longer afer, Athenians successfully revolted and once more set up a democracy, but it was never as powerful again.
year Thebes overthrew Sparta
How were the Greek city-states weakened?
They began to lose their sense of community because war lasted a long time and cost a great deal of money. People became interested in making money and having a good time and bitterness developed between upper and lower classes within each polis. When Spartans ruled, they were harsh and angered Greeks.
where cities tended to develop in Ancient Greece
focus of life in Sparta
After Cleisthenes's reforms, who ran the daily business in Athens?
The council of 500
Why was Battle of Matathon important?
The Greeks defeated the Perisans, who were the largest and most powerful empire in the western world at that time. It gave the Greeks a sense of confidence.
What ares of life did Pericles make Athens the center of?
last city-state to take over leadership of an independent Greece. They defeated Spartan rule, but were no better than Spartans. It weakened city-states even more. Greeks were no longer united and were conquered by Philip II of Macedonia in 338 BC.
Describe life in Sparta
They only wanted to be militarily strong. Unhealthy babies were left to die. They believed new ideas would weaken their way of life. Because of this, they tried to prevent change. Without improvement in their civilization, they remained a poor farming society.
They had more freedom than other women in Greece. They freely mixed with men enjoying sports such as wrestling and racing.
They were put into military camps at 7 years old. They couldn't retire from army until they were 60. They were expected to marry at 20 years of age. If men brought their shields home with them, it meant they had won the battle. Dead warriors were carried home on their shields.
Persian king who punished the Greek mainland for helping the Ionians in Persian War, but were defeated.
the Greek city-sates in Asia Minor and on the Aegean islands.
the inner part of the polis and the illages and farmland around it. Each had its own government and laws and contained about 5,000 and 10,000 citizens.
workers born outside Greece, as well as women, children, and enslaved people.
responsibilities of citizens
They were expected to take part in government and to defend their polis in time of war or conflict. The polis gave them a sense of belonging. They put the good of the polis above everything else.
Ten generals elected by Assembly to run the Athenian army and navy and serve as judges. One of the generals was named commander-in-chief.
Council of 500
handled the daily business of Athens. Their members were chosen each year by lot. A member could only serve for two terms, allowing every citizen a chance to be a member. They were chosen by lot to avoid the rich being the only members.
They ruled largest and most powerful empire in western world.
the temple of the goddess Athena.
two parallel fortified walls with tile roofs that connected Athens with its seaport of Piraeus some five miles away. It allowed Athens to get supplies even in times of war.
Thousands of young Athenian men left home to become these hired soldiers, in the Persian army.