Whiston Chapters 7 & 15 Intelligence and Ability Assessment
Terms in this set (36)
Mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations.
Psychological Theories of Intelligence
1. Sensory functioning/perceptiveness
2. Higher mental processes of judgment and reasoning
3. Two factor theory of intelligence.
4. Group factor theory of intelligence
5. Two factor "g"
6. Structure of intellect
7. Cognitive development and adaptation
8. Triarchic model
9. Information processing model
10. Biologically based theories
11. Multiple intelligences
How is intelligence defined?
1. "intelligence" tests
2. Defined by "intelligence" research
3. Defined by laypersons vs. psychologists
What is an example of an "intelligence" tests?
WAIS (Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale)
What is one difference between how laypersons vs. psychologists define intelligence?
Missing social aspect of intelligence.
Sensory functioning intelligence
Theory that suggests that the more perceptive a person's senses are, the higher their intelligence. (ex. reaction time)
Higher mental processes of judgment and reasoning
Intelligence theory that emphasized the ability yo make good judgments, reason well, and use common sense. Arise as children encounter and master the cultural tools of their society. Discovering patterns and new relationships, reorganizing perceptions, changing attitudes, gaining insight and understanding.
Two factor theory of Intelligence Spearman
Intelligence theory that suggests only two factors are measured by intelligence tests, a general intelligence factor (g - general factor) common to all tests and a specific factor (s - specific factor) that is distinctive in each test. Spearman believed both factors jointly determined the measured value of human intelligence on any particular test.
A general ability, proposed by Spearman as the main factor underlying all intelligent mental activity
Spearman's idea of the ability to excel in certain areas, or specific intelligences (like music, art, business)
group factor theory of intelligence
Intelligence, considered as a mental trait, is the capacity to make impulses focal at their early, unfinished stage of formation. Seven factors (Primary Mental Abilities)
Thurstone's Primary Mental Abilities
Our intelligence may be broken down into seven (7) factors, agreed with Spearman about a "g" construct.
SPAIN VW (Thurstone Primary Mental Abilities.
two types of intelligence: fluid and crystalized intelligence.
Ability to learn and solve problems.
type of intelligence which includes stored knowledge and verbal skills.
Structure of Intellect (Guilford)
Guilford's factor analytic model of intelligence that proposes that there are 180 distinct mental abilities. 3 Dimensions ( Content, Operations, Products)
Cognitive development and adaptation (Piaget)
Piaget's theory of intelligence. Gradual orderly changes by which mental processes become more complex and sophisticated.
Four stages of cognitive development
Sensorimotor, pre-operational, concrete operational, formal operational; part of Piaget's cognitive-developmental viewpoint.
Concepts or mental frameworks that organize and interpret information (like rules or guidelines).
According to Piaget, the process by which new ideas and experiences are absorbed and incorporated into existing mental structures and behaviors
According to Piaget, a process used to modify an existing schema when assimilation doesn't produce the desired purpose, and achieving the desired purpose.
Triarchic model (Sternberg)
model of intelligence proposed by Robert Sternberg positing three distinct types of intelligence: analytical, practical, and creative.
Information processing model (Luria)
Simultaneous and successive processing are localized differently in the brain.
concerned with how the brain processes information and the extent to which differences in brain activity are affected by genes and environment. Reinforcement prevents decay.
Multiple intelligences (Gardener)
A term used to refer to Gardner's theory, which proposes that there are seven (or more) forms of intelligence.
Within-group / Between-group differences
With-in group differences are larger than between-group differences.
A worldwide increase in IQ scores over the last several decades, at a rate of about 3 points per decade.
What environmental factors influence intelligence?
Cultural environment, attendance at school, family environment, and toxins in the environment.
Types of instrument bias (3)
Content bias, internal structure bias, instrument and criterion relationships bias.
No test can be created that will entirely eliminate the influences of learning and cultural experiences. Instruments may be biased in terms of the content being more familiar or appropriate for one group as compared with another group. (i.e. Assessment that asks for state bird of Wyoming).
internal structure bias
scores on an instrument may be more reliable for one group than another or scores on an assessment may be reliable for one group but not reliable for another.
instrument and criterion relationships bias
Differences in validity coefficients, the relationship between instrument and the criterion for different groups.
the degree to which construct irrelevant factors systematically affect groups performance.
when an instrument yields validity coefficients that are significantly different for 2 or more groups,
differential item functioning
arises when test takers from different cultures have the same ability level on the test construct, but the item or test yields very different scores for the two cultures
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