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What does empowerment mean?

words are powerful, clients are partners, problems are viewed in contexts

Process of social work

engagement, assessment, intervention, evaluation


preparing, building a relationship, defining purpose, clarifying roles, assessing immediacy of needs

considerations in engagement

personal vs. professional relationship
voluntary and involuntary clients
asking for help
problems are complex

Skills in engagement

-sensitive to culture
-express understanding

knowledge in engagement

-cultural competence


-gathering information
-clarifying, prioritizing problems
-identifying strengths
-assessing resources
-exploring solutions
-setting goals and action plan

considerations in assessment

-clients understanding of the problem
-who's affected and how?
-attempted solutions
-clients hope and motivation

Assessment skills

communication skiils and critical thinking

assessment knowledge

-problem area
-available resources
-theoretical framework
-what works

assessment values

-social justice


-expanding opportunities
-motivating clients
-engaging cultural resources
-planning for implementation
-strengthening personal abilities
-accessing resources

considerations in intervention

-implementation-what, who's involved?
-don't "do for" the client
-recognize structural barriers
-provide support, create resources

intervention skills


intervention knowledge

-strengths perspective
-appropriate actions, interventions

intervention values

-social justice
-worth and dignity
-self determination


-recognizing successes
-evaluating progress
-establishing strengths

Evaluation skills

monitor progress, assess outcomes, determine affectiveness

Evaluation knowledge


Evaluation values


Life span perspective

-individuals are viewed across the lifespan
-from conception to death and dying
-person in environments
-human development

Gap between knowledge and action

-evidence based practice
-intervene early (prevention vs intervention)
(ex. youth gangs)

Physical enviornment

environmental impact on human development (water, air, and soil)

Biological aspects

expansion of knowledge
-functioning of the brain
-links between physiology and behavior
-ethical issues

Erikson's stages of development

Trust vs mistrust - infant

¢ Autonomy vs shame/doubt - toddler

¢ Initiative vs guilt - preschooler

¢ Industry vs superiority - school-age

¢ Identity vs role confusion - adolescent

¢ Intimacy vs isolation - young adult

¢ Generativity vs stagnation - middle age
¢ Ego integrity vs despair - older adult

Maslow's triangle

-self actualization

Social aspects

-mpact social environment
-supportive social environment
-consider traumatic social events


meet present needs without using up resources


Person in environment is constant interaction


interactionism of parts of the world

Bio-psycho-social-spiritual model

holistic view of individuals

strengths perspective

resource in individual and enviornment

Social policy

as a process means policy making
as product means programs and services as enacted legislation that leads to programs


After problems are identified
Emergency focus
Individual responsibility


Providing services is function of society
Prevention focus
Collective responsibility


provides benefits to all people
social insurance
entitlement based on contributions
(adv and disadv)


Restricted to those in need
Means-tested: Income, assets
Public assistance

Social policy defined

-course of action shapes quality of life
-purpose of public policies

Social policies and political ideologies

Conservative- free market, trade resist change, limited government involvement
Liberal-Human rights, equity, civil liberties and rights
Radical-social change, redistribute wealth, social responsibility

History of public warfare

Progressive era- 1910-1920's
New deal and Great depression- 1930's
Great society programs- 1960's
New Federalism's- 1970's
Welfare reform- 1990's
Health care reform-2000's

Public welfare programs

Old age survivors disability health insurance (OASDHI)
temporary assistance of needy families (TANF)
medicaid and medicare
supplemental nutrition assistance program (SNAP)

Old age survivors disability act

largest social welfare program
financial security for workers
viewed as a "right"

Social security in 2011

employer pays 6.2% up to max
1.45% medicare on all earnings
workers pay 4.2% up to max
1.45% medicare on all earnings
Maximum Taxable Earning SS

$106,800 in 2011

5 types of benefits

family benefits


cost of living adjustment
built into Social security

Where is the stigma?


Why is social security not as fair as it seems?

-tax is greater for those with a lower income
-receive more than they pay in

Why is there skepticism about the future of SS?

originally there were more workers than recipients
policy changes to secure SS
-limit eligibility
-increase withholding
-cut benefits
-adjust COLA's
-Private accounts

Guest Speakers

Melanie Pederson
Matt Robison

Melanie Pederson

Social work in the federal Bureau prisons
population in federal prisons - 217, 660
117 total institutions
58% white (white includes Hispanic), 37% black, 1.8% Native American, 1.7% Asian

Matt Robison

treatment with children at risk with developmental disabilities
kids put under care by nurses, pediatricians, psychologists, social workers
ADHD, Autism
Serves 72 counties in Texas
services- autism services, behavior disorders, adoption clinic, jane justin school, psychology, 51% of families are on medicaid or CHIP product

Levels of intervention

Mezzo- small groups
Macro- large groups

Processes of social work

engagement > assessment > intervention > evaluation

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