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A testcross is

A mating between and individual of unknown genotype and an individual homozygous recessive for the trait of interest

A chart that shows the relationships among parents and children over more than one generation and is used for genetic analysis is called

A pedigree

A mutation that occurs on the sex chromosome is

A sex-linked disorder

The matching of A antigens with A antibodies in the blood is


A mutation that occurs on chromosomes #1-22 is

An autosomal disorder

Research since Mendel's time has established that the law of the segregation of genes during gamete formation

Applies to all sexually reproducing organisms

The antigens are _____ found ______

Carbohydrates...on the red blood cell

When both alleles are expressed in individuals (such as chickens with black and white feathers or ABO blood types) this is called


Unable to distinguish red and green colors

Color blindness

The mechanism that "breaks" the linkage between linked genes is

Crossing over

Thick heavy mucus clogs lungs

Cystic fibrosis

Dr. Smith's parents have normal hearing. However, Dr. Smith has an inherited form of deafness. Deafness is a recessive trait that is associated with the abnormal allele d. The normal allele at this locus, associated with normal hearing, is D. Dr. Smith's parents could have which of the following genotypes?

Dd and Dd

Missing a protein required for muscle formation

Duchenne muscular dystrophy

Mendel's law of independent assortment states that

Each pair of alleles segregates independently of the other pairs of alleles during gamete formation

The term that describes the genetic make-up of an organism for a particular trait is


Missing a protein that causes the blood to clot


A carrier of a genetic disorder who does not show symptoms is most likely to be

Heterozygous for the trait and able to transmit it to offspring

A female carrier of colorblindness is


Degeneration of nerves and breakdown of brain cells/loss of muscle control

Huntington's disease

When there are 2 dominant alleles but neither is fully expressed (such as the color in snap dragons-red, white, and pink) this is called

Incomplete dominance

Any gene located on a sex chromosome

Is called a sex-linked gene

Amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling allow for _____ and _____ of the fetus so that it can be tested for abnormalities

Karyotyping...biochemical testing

Why are sex-linked diseases more common in men than in women

Men need inherit only one copy of the recessive allele on the X chromosome for the disease to be expressed

The vast majority of people afflicted with recessive disorders are born to parents who were

Not affected at all by the disease

How many sex chromosomes are in a human gamete?


Mendel conducted his most memorable experiments on


The term that describes the expressed trait in an organism is


Missing an enzyme that breaks down phenylalanine/results in brain damage


A ______ involves a change in a single base whereas a ______ involves a segment of a chromosome, a whole chromosome, or a set of chromosomes

Point mutation...chromosomal mutation

When the trait displayed is controlled by one or more genes (such as eye color, hair color, skin color) this is called

Polygenic inheritance

Fruits that are larger than normal (such as a 10 lb lemon) are results of


The antibodies are _____ found _____ the plasma

Most genetic disorders of humans are caused by

Recessive alleles

Which of the following disorders is NOT sex-linked?

Sickle-cell disease

Abnormal hemoglobin causing cells to be sickle shaped

Sickle-cell disease

Missing an enzyme that breaks down lipids in the brain/destroys brain cells

Tay-Sachs disease

The alleles of a gene are found at _____ chromosomes

The same locus on homologous

The universal blood recipient is

Type AB

The universal blood donor is

Type O

Which genetic trait is most influenced by the environment?


Which represents a genotype for colorblindness? (C-normal, c-colorblind)


The sex chromosome complement of a normal human male is


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