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42 terms

BIO 109 - Ch 9 Patterns of Inheritance

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A testcross is
A mating between and individual of unknown genotype and an individual homozygous recessive for the trait of interest
A chart that shows the relationships among parents and children over more than one generation and is used for genetic analysis is called
A pedigree
A mutation that occurs on the sex chromosome is
A sex-linked disorder
The matching of A antigens with A antibodies in the blood is
Agglutination
A mutation that occurs on chromosomes #1-22 is
An autosomal disorder
Research since Mendel's time has established that the law of the segregation of genes during gamete formation
Applies to all sexually reproducing organisms
The antigens are _____ found ______
Carbohydrates...on the red blood cell
When both alleles are expressed in individuals (such as chickens with black and white feathers or ABO blood types) this is called
Codominance
Unable to distinguish red and green colors
Color blindness
The mechanism that "breaks" the linkage between linked genes is
Crossing over
Thick heavy mucus clogs lungs
Cystic fibrosis
Dr. Smith's parents have normal hearing. However, Dr. Smith has an inherited form of deafness. Deafness is a recessive trait that is associated with the abnormal allele d. The normal allele at this locus, associated with normal hearing, is D. Dr. Smith's parents could have which of the following genotypes?
Dd and Dd
Missing a protein required for muscle formation
Duchenne muscular dystrophy
Mendel's law of independent assortment states that
Each pair of alleles segregates independently of the other pairs of alleles during gamete formation
The term that describes the genetic make-up of an organism for a particular trait is
Genotype
Missing a protein that causes the blood to clot
Hemophilia
A carrier of a genetic disorder who does not show symptoms is most likely to be
Heterozygous for the trait and able to transmit it to offspring
A female carrier of colorblindness is
Heterozygous
Degeneration of nerves and breakdown of brain cells/loss of muscle control
Huntington's disease
When there are 2 dominant alleles but neither is fully expressed (such as the color in snap dragons-red, white, and pink) this is called
Incomplete dominance
Any gene located on a sex chromosome
Is called a sex-linked gene
Amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling allow for _____ and _____ of the fetus so that it can be tested for abnormalities
Karyotyping...biochemical testing
Why are sex-linked diseases more common in men than in women
Men need inherit only one copy of the recessive allele on the X chromosome for the disease to be expressed
The vast majority of people afflicted with recessive disorders are born to parents who were
Not affected at all by the disease
How many sex chromosomes are in a human gamete?
One
Mendel conducted his most memorable experiments on
Peas
The term that describes the expressed trait in an organism is
Phenotype
Missing an enzyme that breaks down phenylalanine/results in brain damage
Phenylketonuria
A ______ involves a change in a single base whereas a ______ involves a segment of a chromosome, a whole chromosome, or a set of chromosomes
Point mutation...chromosomal mutation
When the trait displayed is controlled by one or more genes (such as eye color, hair color, skin color) this is called
Polygenic inheritance
Fruits that are larger than normal (such as a 10 lb lemon) are results of
Polyploidy
The antibodies are _____ found _____
Proteins....in the plasma
Most genetic disorders of humans are caused by
Recessive alleles
Which of the following disorders is NOT sex-linked?
Sickle-cell disease
Abnormal hemoglobin causing cells to be sickle shaped
Sickle-cell disease
Missing an enzyme that breaks down lipids in the brain/destroys brain cells
Tay-Sachs disease
The alleles of a gene are found at _____ chromosomes
The same locus on homologous
The universal blood recipient is
Type AB
The universal blood donor is
Type O
Which genetic trait is most influenced by the environment?
Weight
Which represents a genotype for colorblindness? (C-normal, c-colorblind)
XcY
The sex chromosome complement of a normal human male is
XY