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44 terms

BIO 109 - Ch 10 Molecular Biolgoy of the Gene

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How many origins of replication and how many replication forks are shown?
3 origins and 6 replication forks
The directions for each amino acid in a polypeptide are indicated by a codon that consists of ______ nucleotide(s) in an RNA molecule
3
We would expect that a 12-nucleotide sequence will direct the production of a polypeptide that consists of
4 amino acids
When one DNA molecule is copied to make two DNA molecules, the new DNA contains
50% of the parent DNA
Any change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA is called
A mutation
What kind of virus is HIV?
A retrovirus
The shape of a DNA moleucle is most like
A twisted rope ladder
Which of the following statements regarding viruses is false?
A virus is generally considered to be alive because it is cellular and can reproduce on its own
Why does a DNA strand grow only in the 5' to 3' direction?
Because DNA polymerases can only add nucleotides to the 3' end of the growing molecule
A protein shell enclosing a viral genome is know as a(n)
Capsid
Which of the following options best depicts the flow of information when a gene directs the synthesis of a cellular component?
DNA --> RNA --> protein
Which of the following is not needed in order for translation to occur?
DNA template
Which of the following statements regarding DNA is false?
DNA uses the nitrogenous base uracil
What will be the most likely cause of a new avian flue pandemic like the 1918-1919 flu pandemic that killed approximately 40 million people worldwide?
Easy viral transmission from person to person
Which of the following statements about eukaryotic RNA is true?
Exons are spliced together
Which of the following human activities has contributed to an increase in the number of bacteria having R plasmids?
Heavy use of antibiotics in medicine and in agriculture
The envelope of a flu virus
Helps the virus enter the cell
Which of the following statements about herpesviruses is false?
Herpesviruses reproduce inside the host cell's mitochondria
Where do transcription and translation occur in prokaryotic cells?
In the cytoplasm
Conjugation, transformation, and transduction are all ways that bacteria
Increase their genetic diversity
All proteins (amino acid chains) begin with ______
Methionine
A physical or chemical agent that changes the nucleotide sequence of DNA is called a(n)
Mutagen
The monomers of DNA and RNA are
Nucleotides
When a T2 bacteriophage infects an Escherichia coli cell, which part of the phage enters the bacterial cytoplasm?
Only the DNA
One type of virus that infects bacteria is called a
Phage
In many bacteria, genes that confer resistance to antibiotics are carried on
R plasmids
Which of the following statements regarding RNA is false?
RNA uses the sugar dextrose
Multiple origins of replication on the DNA molecules of eukaryotic cells serve to
Shorten the time necessary for DNA replication
All proteins (amino acid chains) end with ______
STOP
HIV does the greatest damage to
T cells
What nucleotide sequence would be found on the partner DNA strand of the strand shown? (ACTGT)
TGACA
Which of the following statements regarding a DNA double helix is always true?
The amount of adenine is equal to the amount of thymine, and the amount of guanine is equal to the amount of cytosine
Which of the following takes place during translation?
The conversion of genetic information from the language of nucleic acids to the language of proteins
Which of the following features characterizes the lytic cycle of a viral infection?
The cycle typically lads to the lysis of the host cell
How would the shape of a DNA molecule change if adenine paired with guanine and cytosine paried with thymine?
The DNA molecule would have irregular widths along its length
Consider the following sentence: "The dog did not eat." Which of the following variations of this sentence is most like a reading frame mutation?
The dod idn ote at
Consider the following sentence: "The dog did not eat." Which of the following variations of this sentence is most like a base substitution mutation?
The doe did not eat
A base substitution mutation in a gene does not always result in a different protein. Which of the following factors could account for this?
The fact that some amino acids are specified from more than one codon
Which of the following statements about the treatment or prevention for a prion infection is true?
There is no known treatment or cure for prion infections
Which of the following statements regarding the flow of genetic information is false?
Transcription occurs in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells
The transfer of genetic information from DNA to RNA is called
Transcription
A friend accidentally sends an email to you that contains a computer virus form his computer. Without knowing it, you infect your computer with the virus when you open the email. this process of spreading the computer virus using emails is most like which of the following processes
Transduction
DNA replication
Uses each strand of a DNA molecule as a template for the creation of a new strand
Which of the following shows the steps of a viral infection in the proper order?
Virus locates host cell --> penetrates cell membrane --> enters nucleus --> alters host cell DNA --> host cell produces copies of virus