process by which plants use the sun's energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugars
organisms that can make their own food
organisms that cannot make their own food
green pigment in plants that absorbs light energy used to carry out photosynthesis; this is the main pigment for photosynthesis and is found in the organelles known as chloroplasts
the small openings on the undersides of most leaves through which oxygen and water vapor go in and carbon dioxide go out
A waxy covering on the surface of stems and leaves
a colored chemical compound that absorbs light, producing a green color
Pairs of cells that surround stomata and control their opening and closing
the process of separating a chemical mixture into its individual substances
Nearly all living things obtain energy either directly or indirectly from the energy of the sunlight captured during photosynthesis.
How do living things get energy from the sun?
Plants and some other organisms absorb energy from the sun and use the energy to convert carbon dioxide and water into sugars and oxygen.
What happens during photosynthesis?
The energy powers cells. Cells need energy to carry out their functions like making proteins and transporting things into and out of the cell.
Why do living things need energy?
energy, carbon dioxide, sugars
The captured light ________, hydrogen, and _____________________ are used to produce _________.
___________ in plant cells captures energy from ___________.
In the chloroplast.
Where does photosynthesis take place?
The soil. It moves through the xylem, up the stem, and into the leaves.
Where does the water for photosynthesis come from?
The air. It moves through the stomata and into the leaves.
Where does the CO2 for photosynthesis come from?
What do we call the process by which CO2 moves into the leaf and water vapor moves out?
stage 1 - Chloroplast captures energy from sunlight, stage 2 - Light energy, water, and carbon dioxide is converted into sugars and oxygen
What are the two stages of photosynthesis?
Light energy + 6 CO2 + 6 H2O -> C6H12O6 + 6 O2
balanced equation for Photosynthesis
Glucose & Oxygen
What are two products of photosynthesis?
the process by which cells obtain energy from glucose cells break down glucose and other molecules from food in the presence of oxygen, releasing energy
In the cytoplasm, ___________ is broken down into smaller molecules, releasing a small amount of __________
mitochondria, oxygen, energy
in the ______________ the smaller molecules react, producing __________ water, and large amounts of ________
it produces energy for the cell
How does the second stage of cellular respiration benefit the cell?
cellular respiration gives off carbon dioxide but photosynthesis gives off oxygen
Why does cellular respiration add carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, but photosynthesis does not?
an energy releasing process that does not require oxygen, during this process cells release energy from food without using oxygen. This process releases much less energy than cellular respiration does.
alcoholic produces carbon dioxide but lactic acid produces energy
What is the diff between alcoholic fermentation and lactic acid fermentation?
C₆H₁₂O₆ + 6O₂ --> 6CO₂ + 6H₂O
balanced equation for cellular respiration equation
first step in releasing the energy of glucose, in which a molecule of glucose is broken into two molecules of pyruvic acid
Three-carbon compound that forms as an end product of glycolysis.
(adenosine triphosphate) main energy source that cells use for most of their work
To break down glucose and release chemical energy
Why do cells need oxygen?
fire needs fuel and oxygen to burn
fire produces energy in the form of heat and light
How is combustion similar to respiration?
occurs in yeast and other single celled organisms, it produces alcohol, carbon dioxide, and a small amount of energy
lactic acid fermentation
the chemical breakdown of carbohydrates that produces lactic acid as the main end product, occurs in the cells of muscles that must produce lots of energy with only a little available oxygen
Photosynthesis and cellular respiration can be thought of as ____________ processes.