History Final

Chief of State
Head of Govt and a symbol of the people. Ceremonial head of state.
Chief Executive
Holds Executive power.
Chief Administrator
Leader of executive branch of fed govt
Chief Diplomat
Architect of foreign policy and chief spokesperson
Chief Legislator
Author of public policy
Chief of Party
Leader of political party
Chief Citizen
Representative of the people
25th Amendment
Establishes procedures for succession to the presidency
Vice President
Balances the ticket, Next in line to president
Presidential Succession
The order in which the office of president is to be filled if it becomes vacant
Presidential Electors
Person elected by the voters to represent them in a formal selection of the vice president and pres
Electoral College
Group of persons chosen in each state every 4 years who will make formal selection pres
Election of 1800
Tie between Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr. Electors voted on party lines
12th Amendment
2 distinct ballots, one for pres and one for vice pres
Presidential Primary
An election in which a party's voters 1. chose delegates 2. vote for party's pres candidate
National Convention
Meeting at which party's delegates pick the presidential and vice pres candidates.
A PP formal statement of basic principals, major issues, objectives
3 flaws in Electoral College
1. win of pop vote might not win 2. constitution not require electors to vote for candidate pop vote 3. Tie decided in HOR, each state 1 vote
District Plan
Proposal for choosing presidential electors by which two electors would be selected in each State according to the Statewide popular vote and the other electors would be selected separately in each of the State's congressional districts.
Proportional Plan
Plan for choosing pres where Electoral votes equal share of popular vote
Direct Popular Election
Plan to do away with EC. Each votes counts equally. Winner would always be majority choice. Requires constn amendment
National Popular Vote Plan
States would change election laws so that state's electoral votes are awarded to pop vote winner.
President's Executive Power
1 President can issue an executive order
2 President appoints top ranking officers
3 President has power to remove officials he appoints (usually resign)
Oath of Office
Oath taken by the president on the day he takes office, pledging to "faithfully execute" the office and "preserve, protect, and defend" the constitution
Executive order
An order given by the pres based on the authority of constn or given by congress., a rule issued by the president that has the force of law. How a law is interpreted.
Appointment Power
Pres choses a person for office. Cabinet, Ambassadors, judges, army officials. Not elected.
Senate Approval of Appointees
Pres nominates, senate hearings, majority vote wins
Removal Power
Pres power to remove appointee
President's Diplomatic Power
Power to make treaties, to make executive agreements (pact bet pres and head of foreign govt) power of recognition (pres recognizes existance of another country)
Agreement between two or more countries. Sec of State acting for the Pres.
Senate Approval of Treaties
2/3 senate to approve treaty
Commander and Chief
leader of armed forces, almost unlimited power, delegates to military leaders, pres final decision maker
Undeclared War
Pres does not have official power to declare war--congress does. But history shows that pres has declared war.
Declaration of War
only congress can declare war, granted at request of President
Congressional Resolutions
No declared war since wwii. 8x since we have fought using resolutions. Congress gives pres power to deal with crisis using force.
War Powers Act of 1973
Limited military actions that a president can take.
President's Legislative Powers
1. The Message Power--Recommend legislation 2. Power to Address congress 3x Speeches 3. Veto Power
State of the Union
Speech delivered to Congress lists what the Pres wants to accomplish
Annual Economic Report
Can send other message asking congress to pass laws to help country
Budget Message
President reports on the budget
Veto Power
President's check on legislative branch. Difficult to overturn with 2/3 majority.
Pres 4 options with a Bill
Sign. Veto. Do Nothing. Pocket Veto
Signing Statement
Pres sign Bill but points out problems, enforcement. Used most often by GW Bush.
Line Item Veto
Unconstitutional. Does not exist. Pres vetos part of a Bill. Increases power of Pres.
Delay the start of a sentence in jail.
Legal forgiveness for a crime
Mercy granted to an offender ex. pardon/reprieve/
Shortened jail sentence
Blanket pardon to a group of law violators.