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62 terms

Community Health Chapter 1-10 Terms

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Public health nursing
requires specific educational preparation; evolved from visiting nursing and district nursing
Community health nursing
denotes a setting for the practice of nursing; evolved from several programs develop in Western Europe
Community based nursing
Working outside of hospitals and nursing homes
Population-focused
assessment, planning and evaluation occur at the population level
Community/public health nurse
A nurse who has received formal public health nursing preparation
Visions
broad statements describing what we desire something to be like
Commitments
agreements we make with ourselves that pledge our energies for or toward our visions
Population
people residing in an area; group or set of persons under statistical study
Group
a collection or set of persons, not a system of individuals who engage in face-to-face interactions
Risk
statistical concept based on probability
Aggregate
synonym for the second definition of population
Distributive justice
ethical concept concerned with the fair provision of opportunities, goods, and services to populations of people
Social justice
the principle that all persons are entitled to have their basic human needs met, regardless of differences in economic status, class, gender, race, ethnicity, citizenship, religion, age, sexual orientation, disability or health
Visiting nursing
originated when concerned laypersons provided care to the sick in their homes
District nursing
started by William Rathbone that assigned nurses to a specific parish or district
Public health
a social activity that builds a comprehensive program of community service on the basic sciences of chemistry, bacteriology, engineering and statistics, physiology, pathology, epidemiology, and sociology
Primary health care
essential health care that is universally accessible to individuals and families within communities
National health objectives
developed and published principles that are published in a series of documents called Healthy People
Health care system
organizational structure in which health care is delivered to a population
Primary prevention
the promotion of healthy behaviors and reduction of health risks, is once again a popular concept
Decentralization
local communities, states, and federal government share responsibilities for regulation and provision of services to the population; health care services are no exception
Free market
private enterprise allowed to develop goods and services as it chooses and to offer them to the clientele, or market, it selects
Gross domestic product (GDP)
a measure of all goods and services sold in the US
Direct care services
health services delivered to an individual
direct care providers
personnel that provide direct care services
Indirect care services
health services that are not personally received by the individual, although they influence health and welfare
Private sector
composed of private organizations, both for-profit businesses and nonprofit organizations
Public sector
consists of services provided by public funds and public organizations
Third-party reimbursement
financing of health care by the health insurance company rather than by the individual
Primary prevention
preventing illness (immunizations)
Secondary prevention
screening (BP testing)
Tertiary prevention
eliminating or reducing long-term effects of an illness
Vested interest
groups whose professional practices or finances might be affected by the decisions of the boards
universal coverage
health insurance coverage for everyone
Risk groups
groups with a likelihood of accidents or illness because of low income or inability to easily access health care services
Medicare
covers elderly & disabled
Medicaid
Covers poor, women & children, aged, disabled adults
voluntary organizations
assist in the effort to improve worldwide health
epidemiologic transition
change in illness pattern
emerging infectious diseases
diseases that are either old diseases that are rapidly increasing in incidence or geographic range or new, previously unknown conditions
Public health law
all laws that have a significant impact on the health of defined populations
Statutory law
enacted through the legislative branch of government
Administrative law
consists of orders, rules, and regulations promulgated by the administrative branches of governments
Judicial or common law
developed through federal and state court decisions
Nurse practice acts
broad frameworks within which the legal scope of nursing practice is defined
statute of limitations
time frame in which legal action of malpractice must be filed
Abandonment
unilateral termination of a professional relationship without affording the client reasonable notice and alternative health care services
lobbyist
informs decision makers and educates others who need to understand community health care issues
occurrence policy
provides protection if the incident occurs while the nurse is insured by the policy
claims-made policy
not only does the incident have to occur while the nurse is insured by the company, but the policy also has to be in force at the time the plaintiff brings suit against the nurse
Epidemiology
the discipline that provides the structure for systematically studying the distribution and determinants of health, disease, and conditions related to health status
mortality
death rates
morbidity
illness rates
incidence
the rate at which a specific disease develop in a population
prevalence
measures all of the existing cases at a given point in time
vital statistics
term used for data collected from the ongoing registration of vital events, such as death certificates, birth certificates, and marriage certificates
surveillance
ongoing systematic collection, analysis and dissemination of health information for the purpose of monitoring and containing specific, primarily contagious, diseases
bioterrorism
use of disease-producing agents as weapons
infective doses
the amount of agent needed to produce illness
Environmental health
aspects of human health, including quality of life, that are determined by physical, chemical, biologic, social, and psychologic problems in the environment
Environmental justice
the disproportionately high exposures of low-income and minority populations to environmental health risks, such as air pollution, hazardous waste incinerators, toxic landfills, pesticides, lead exposure, and unsafe drinking water
cultural self-assessment
developing an awareness of one's own cultural values, attitudes, beliefs, and practices