Political Science 1100 Exam 2 (Professor Kurklowski, Mizzou)
Terms in this set (100)
A two-house legislature
The process of allotting congressional seats to each state according to its proportion, following the decennial census.
A proposed law
The power delegated to the House of Reps. in the Constitution to charge the president, vice president or other "civil officers," including federal judges with "Treason, Bribery or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors." This process is the first step in the constitutional process of removing government officials from office
Already holding a office
The process of redrawing congressional districts to reflect increases and decreases in seats allotted to the states, as wells as population shifts.
The drawing of congressional districts to produce a particular electoral outcome without regard to the shape of the district.
The political party in each house of Congress with the most members
The political party in each house with the second most members
Party Caucus (or Conference)
A formal gathering for all party members
Speaker of the House
The only officer of the House of Reps. specifically mentioned in the Constitution; the chamber's most powerful position; traditionally a member of the majority party.
The head of the party controlling the most seats in the House of Reps. or the Senate; is second in authority to the Speaker of the House and in the Senate regarded as the most powerful member.
The head of the minority party that's in the minority of elected reps, in the House of Reps. or the Senate
Party leader who keeps close contact with all members of his or her party, takes vote counts on key legislation, prepares summaries of bills and acts as a communications link within a party.
President Pro Tempore
The official chair of the Senate; usually the most senior member of the majority party.
Committee to which proposed bills are referred; continues from one Congress to the next.
Standing committee that includes members from both houses of congress set up to conduct investigations or special studies.
Special joint committee created to reconcile differences in bills passed by the House and Senate
Select (or Special) Committee
Temporary committee appointed for a specific purpose
Time of continuous service on a committee
A session in which committee members offer changes to the bill before it goes to the floor.
A procedure by which a senator asks to be informed before a particular bill or nomination is brought to the floor. This request signals leadership that a member may have objections to the bill (or nomination) and should be consulted before further action is taken.
A formal way of halting Senate action on a bill by means of long speeches or unlimited debate.
Mechanism requiring the vote of sixty senators to cut off debate.
The formal, constitutional authority of the president to reject bills passed by both houses of congress, thus preventing them from becoming law without further congressional action. Can be overturned by 2/3 majority vote in Congress.
If congress adjourns during the ten days the president has to consider a bill by both houses of Congress, the bill is considered vetoed without the president's signature.
Congressional Budget Act of 1974
Act that established the congressional budgetary process by laying out a plan for congressional action on the annual budget resolution, appropriations, reconciliation and any other revenue bills.
A procedure that allows consideration of controversial issues affecting the budget by limiting debate to twenty hours, thereby ending threat of a filibuster.
Legislation that allows representatives to bring money and jobs to their districts in the form of public works programs, military programs and other programs.
Federal funds designated for special kinds of projects within a state or congressional district.
War Powers Resolution
Passed by Congress in 1973, requires authirzation from Congress to deploy troops overseas and limits time of their deployment.
A process whereby Congress can nullify agency regulations by a joint resolution of legislative disapproval.
A process by which presidents generally allow senators form the state in which a judicial vacancy occurs too block a nomination by simply registering their objection.
Role played by an elected representative who listens to constituents' opinions and the uses his or her best judgement to make a final decision.
Role played by an elected representative who votes the way his or her constituents would want, regardless of personal opinions.
An elected rep. who acts as a trustee or as a delegate, depending on the issue.
Vote trading; Voting to support a colleague's bill in return for a promise of future support.
Adopted in 1951; prevents a president from serving more than two terms, or more than ten years if he came to office via death, resignation or impeachment of his predecessor.
An implied presidential power that allows the president to refuse to disclose info regarding confidential conversations or national security or the judiciary.
USA Vs Nixon (1974)
Supreme Court ruling on power of the president, holding that no absolute constitutional executive privilege allows a president to refuse to comply with a court order to produce info needed in a criminal trial.
Adopted in 1967 to establish procedures for filling vacancies in the office of president and vice president as well as providing for procedures with the disability of a president.
The formal body of a presidential advisors who head the 15 executive departments. Presidents often add others to this body for formal advisers.
Formal International agreements entered into by the president that do not require the advice and consent of the US Senate.
An executive grant providing restoration of all rights and privileges of citizenship to a specific individual charged or convicted of a crime.
Powers that belong to the president because they can be inferred from the constitution.
Executive Office of the President (EOP)
A mini-bureaucracy created in 1939 to help the president oversee the executive branch bureaucracy.
Office of Management and Budget (OMB)
The office that prepares the president's annual budget proposal, reviews the budget and programs of the executive departments, supplies economic forecasts and conducts detailed analyses of proposed bills and agency rules.
Rule and regulation issued by the president that has the effect of law. All executive orders must be published in the Federal Register.
Occasional written comments attached to a bill signed by the president.
Authority vested in a particular court to hear and decide the issues in a particular case.
The jurisdiction of courts that hear a case first, usually in a trial. These courts determine the facts of a case.
The power vested in particular courts to review and/or revise the decision of a lower court.
Judiciary Act of 1789
Legislative act that established the basic three-tiered structure of the federal court system.
Power of the courts to review acts of other branches of government and the states.
Marbury Vs. Madison (1803)
Case which the SC first asserted the power of judicial review by finding that the congressional statute extending the Court's original jurisdiction was unconstitutional.
Court of original jurisdiction where cases begin.
Court that generally reviews only findings of law made by lower courts.
Federal courts specifically created by the US Constitution or by Congress pursuant to its authority in Article III.
Courts established by Congress for specialized purposes such as the Court of Appeals for Veterans Claims.
A document containing the legal written arguments in a case filed with a court by a party prior to a hearing or trial.
A prior judicial decision that serves as a rule for settling subsequent cases of a similar nature
In a court rulings, a reliance on past decisions or precedents to formulate decisions in new cases.
Writ of Certiorari
A request for the Supreme Court to order up the records from a lower court to review the case.
Rule of Four
At least four justices of the Supreme Court must vote to consider a case before it can be heard.
The fourth-ranking member of the Department of Justice, responsible for handling nearly all appeals on behalf of the US Government to the SC.
"Friend of the court"; amici may file briefs or even appear to argue their interests orally before the court.
A philosophy of judicial decision making that posits courts should allow the decisions of other branches of government to stand, even when they offend a judge's own principles.
A philosophy of judicial decision making that posits judges should use their power broadly to further justice.
An approach to constitutional interpretation that emphasizes interpreting the Constitution as it was originally written and intended by the Framers.
How and whether judicial decisions are translated into actual public policies affecting more than the immediate parties to a lawsuit.
What the public thinks about a particular issue or set of issues at any point in time.
Public Opinion Polls
Interviewers or surveys with samples of citizens that are used to estimate the feelings and beliefs of the entire population.
Unscientific survey used to gauge public opinion on a variety of issues and policies.
A subset of the whole population selected to be questioned for the purpose of prediction or gauging opinion.
Polls taken for the purpose of providing info on an opponent that would lead respondents to vote against that candidate.
The entire group of people whose attitudes a researcher wishes to measure.
A method of poll selection that gives each person in a group the same chance of being selected.
A variation of random sampling; the population is divided into subgroups and weighted based on demographic characteristics of the national population.
Continuous surveys that enable a campaign or news organization to chart a candidate's daily rise or fall in support.
Polls conducted as voters leave selected polling places on Election Day.
Margin of Error
A measure of the accuracy of a public opinion poll.
The process through which individuals acquire their political beliefs and values.
The entire array of organizations through which info is collected and disseminated to the general public.
Media providing the public with new info about subjects of public interest.
A form of newspaper publishing in vogue in the late nineteenth century that featured pictures, comics, color and sensationalized news coverage.
A form of journalism, in vogue in the early twentieth century, devoted to exposing misconduct by government, business, and individual politicians.
Targeting media programming at specific populations within society.
Ordinary individuals who collect, report, and analyze news content.
On the Record
Info provided to a journalist that can be released and attributed by name to the source.
Off the Record
Info provided to a journalist that will not be released to the public.
Info provided to a journalist that will not be attributed to a named source.
Info provided to a journalist that will not be attributed to any source.
Limitations on the substance of the mass media
Equal Time Rule
The rule that requires broadcast stations to sell air time equally to all candidates in a political campaign if they choose to sell it to any.
A document offering an official comment or position.
A relatively restricted session between a press secretary or aide and the press.
An unrestricted session between an elected official and the press.
The influence of news sources on public opinion.
The process of forming the list of issues to be addressed by government.
The process by which a news organization defines a political issue and consequently affects opinion about the issue.