Terms in this set (72)
influence government. lobbying, voting, protesting, etc.
associated with citizenship
very low. least well off Americans=not likely to vote, more well off=more likely to vote
Several strategies of mobilization emerged to guide African Americans' quest for equality
political pressure, legal strategies, and protest.
hoped that the widespread use of the Internet and other new technologies would promote greater participation and begin to alter the socioeconomic bias in participation. The most recent research suggests that these new ways of participating have not yet significantly altered the socioeconomic bias in participation.
significance of gender issues
gender gap, the increase in the number of women holding public office, and the continued importance of political issues of special concern to women.
One of the most significant patterns in political participation
older people have much higher rates of participation than young people.
significant element of modern religious politics
mobilization of evangelical Protestants into a cohesive and politically active organization aligned with the Republican party.
political participation factors
socioeconomic status, levels of civic engagement, formal obstacles, and efforts by political institutions to mobilize people. most significant political factor affecting participation is whether people are mobilized by parties, candidates, interest groups, or social movements.
political parties emphasized fund-raising over recruiting volunteers. political institutions failed to mobilize an active citizenry. The demobilized citizenry gave rise to an uneven pattern of political participation at odds with American notions of equality and democracy.
organizations that seek influence over government. chief points of contact between governments and groups and forces in society. By organizing political parties, social forces attempt to gain some control over government policies and personnel. important in policy making
internal mobilization (political parties)
occurs when political conflicts break out and government officials and competing factions seek to mobilize popular support
takes place when a group of politicians outside government organizes popular support to win governmental power
two party system
only two parties have a serious chance to win national elections.
always represented social and economic protests ignored by the other parties. are limited because of America's single-member districts and plurality voting
occur when the established political elite weakens sufficiently to permit the creation of new coalitions of forces capable of capturing and holding the reins of government (there have been 5)
committees made up of active party members.
national party conventions
important in determining party rules and and platform
national committee and the congressional campaign committees
play important roles in recruiting candidates and raising money
psychological ties. often follows demographic, ideological, and regional lines. characteristics associated with: race and ethnicity, gender, religion, class, ideology, region, and age
Congressional leadership and the committee system
products of the two-party system.
he ties that parties have to the electorate are currently weak
the resulting "candidate-centered" politics has some negative consequences, including lower voter turnout, increased influence of interest groups, and a lack of effective decision making by elected leaders.
Democracy depends on strong parties
which promote electoral competition and voter turnout and enable governance through their organizations in Congress.
can be used to replace current officeholders as well as being institutions of legitimation. help to promote government accountability and are a source of protection for groups in society
In the American federal system
the responsibility for organizing elections rests largely with state and local governments
Three types of elections are held in the United States
primary elections, general elections, and runoff elections
fourth voting process
the referendum, but the referendum is not actually an election
18 states have legal provisions for recall elections. electoral device that allows voters to remove governors and other state officials from office prior to the expiration of their terms.
type of electoral system in which, to win a seat in the parliament or other representative body, a candidate need only receive the most votes in the election, not necessarily a majority of votes cast.
Americans do not vote directly for presidential candidates
Rather, they choose electors who are pledged to support a party's presidential candidate.
public opinion polls
provide the basic information that candidates and their staffs use to craft campaign strategies—that is, to select issues, to assess their own strengths and weaknesses as well as those of the opposition, to check voter response to the campaign, and to measure the degree to which various constituent groups may respond to campaign appeals.
Presidential candidates secure a party's nomination by
running in state party primaries and caucuses
Nominations of presidential candidates were first made in caucuses of a party's members of Congress
This system was replaced in the 1830s by nominating conventions, which were designed to be a more democratic, deliberative method of nominating candidates.
ratify a party's presidential and vice-presidential nominations, although conventions still draft the party platform and adopt rules governing the party and its future conventions.
In capital-intensive campaigns
the main technique is to use the broadcast media to present the electorate with themes and issues that will induce them to support one candidate over another.
Three factors influence voters' decisions at the polls
partisan loyalty, issues, and candidate characteristics.
predisposes voters in favor of their party's candidates and against those of the opposing party
In the Republican primary, Mitt Romney's superior organization and financial base carried him to the nomination,
despite challenges from Rick Santorum and Newt Gingrich who portrayed themselves as more conservative than Romney.
Romney's strength and Obama's struggles in the first presidential debate provided Romney with momentum.
However, President Obama won reelection by putting together a coalition of working-class voters, women, and minority constituents and winning all but one battleground state. In Congress, Democrats retained control of the Senate and Republicans retained control of the House.
Campaign funds in the United States are provided by
small, direct-mail contributions, large gifts, PACs, political parties, 527s, candidates' personal resources, and public funding.
Campaign finance is regulated by
Federal Elections Campaign Act of 1971
The Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act,
bipartisan attempt to restrict soft money contributions and issue advocacy, became law in 2002.
organized group of people that makes policy-related appeals to government. An enormous number of diverse interest groups exist in the United States.
all interests are and should be free to compete for influence in the United States. They believed the outcome of this competition would be compromise and moderation, since no group would be able to achieve any of its goals without accommodating itself to some of the views of its many competitors.
key organizational components
leadership, money, an agency or office, and members
Interest-group politics in the United States
tends to have a pronounced upper-class bias because of the characteristics of interest-group members.
The modern expansion of governmental economic and social programs has contributed to
the enormous increase in group activity and organization.
the New Politics movement
accounting for the explosion of interest-group activity in recent years was the emergence of a new set of forces in American politics
effort by outsiders to influence Congress or government agencies by providing them with information about issues, giving them support, and even threatening them with retaliation.
one point in an executive-branch program, another point in a Senate or House legislative committee or subcommittee, and a third point in an interest group. The points in the triangular relationship are mutually supporting and work together for a mutual benefit; they count as access only if they last over a long period of time.
To counter the growing influence of the lobbying industry
stricter guidelines regulating the actions of lobbyists have been adopted in the last decade; however, lobbyists have found ways to circumvent many of the new rules.
financing suits brought by individuals, or by filing a companion brief to an existing case
Interest groups often turn to litigation when
they lack access or feel they have insufficient influence over the formulation and implementation of public policy
Going public is a strategy that attempts to
mobilize the widest and most favorable climate of opinion. Examples of going public include institutional advertising, demonstrations, and grassroots mobilization.
Interest groups also seek to use the electoral process to
elect the right legislators in the first place and to ensure that those who are elected will owe them a debt of gratitude for their financial support and campaign activism. Some groups employ a nonpartisan strategy in electoral politics to avoid giving up access to one party by embracing the other.
The organization of private interests
into groups to advance their own views is a necessary and intrinsic element of the liberty of citizens to pursue their private lives and to express their views, individually and collectively. is biased in favor of the wealthy and the powerful, who have superior knowledge, opportunity, and resources with which to organize.
most important representative institution in American government. Each member's primary responsibility is to the district―that is, to his or her constituency (the people in the district from which an official is elected).
more deliberative. more able than House members to represent statewide or national interests.
characterized by greater centralization and organization. more attuned to localized narrow interests in society. has exhibited more partisanship and ideological division than the Senate.
affords members of Congress resources such as constituency service and mailing to help secure re-election. Incumbency can help a candidate by scaring off potential challengers. The overwhelming percentage of incumbents who run are re-elected.
The committee system
provides Congress with a second organizational structure that is more a division of labor than the party-based hierarchies of power.
most important arenas of congressional policy making. With specific jurisdiction over certain policy areas and the task of processing proposals of legislation into bills for floor consideration
Power within committees is based on
seniority, although the seniority principle is not absolute
Groups of senators or representatives who share certain opinions, interests, or social characteristics form informal organizations
Committee deliberation is necessary before
floor action on any bill.
"die in committee."
bills receive little or no committee or subcommittee action
Bills presented out of committee in the House
must go through the House Rules Committee before they can be debated on the floor
house rules committee
allots the time for floor debate on a bill and the conditions under which a bill may (or may not) be amended
In the Senate, rules of debate are
much less rigid
senators may delay Senate action on legislation by refusing to yield the floor
often required to reconcile House and Senate versions of bills that began with similar provisions but emerged with significant differences.
After being adopted by the House and the Senate
a bill is sent to the president, who may choose to sign the bill or veto it. Congress can override a president's veto by two-thirds vote in both the House and the Senate.