HUSH CHAP 24 NOTES
Terms in this set (50)
Franklin D. Roosevelt
-born wealthy and privileged
-believed that government should do something to help Americans climb out of the economic hardships of the depression
-during 1932 election campaign against Hoover, he promised Americans a "new deal" but provided few details
-defeated Hoover in a historic landslide
Why did Franklin D. Roosevelt defeat Herbert Hoover in the 1932 presidential election by a landslide?
-Hoover was highly unpopular in part because he believed providing direct federal aid to the needy would take away their ambition and drive
-Roosevelt believed the government should intervene to protect citizens from economic hardships
first few months of Teddy Roosevelt's presidency during which Roosevelt created a number of government initiatives that launched the New Deal
What were the 3 goals of the New Deal?
RELIEF-provide help to the millions of poor and unemployed Americans victimized by the depression
RECOVERY-foster economic recovery of farms and businesses, thereby creating jobs and reducing the need for relief
REFORM-reshape government and the economy to protect citizens against future economic downturns
Who was the unofficial ambassador for the New Deal?
first lady, Eleanor Roosevelt - considered the "eyes and ears of the New Deal"
How many terms did Franklin Roosevelt serve as President?
4 terms: 1932,1936, 1940 and 1944
group of economists and other leaders created by Roosevelt to offer suggestions and advice about the problems facing the nation
4 guiding ideas that shaped New Deal policies
1) hoped to save - not eliminate - the capitalist economy by remedying its flaws
2) considered underconsumption the greatest flaw of the capitalist economy and recognized the balance between consumption and production needed to be restored
3) believed the immense size and economic power of American corporations needed to be counterbalanced with government programs and organizations among workers and small producers
4) government needed to find a way to permit ordinary working people to share more fully in the wealth created by American captialism
4 day bank holiday declared by Roosevelt which closed the banks and gave Roosevelt and his advisors time to shore up the banks and restore the confidence of depositors
Securities and Exchange Commission(SEC)
-purpose is to oversee financial markets by licensing investment dealers, monitoring all stock transactions, and requiring corporate officers to make full disclosures about their companies
-created to prevent the fraud, corruption, and insider trading that tainted Wall Street and contributed to the crash of 1929
Federal Emergency Relief Act
supported 4 to 5 million Americans with monthly payments and created thousands of jobs for the unemployed on public works projects
Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)
-purpose was to build dams along the Tennessee River to supply impoverished rural communities with cheap electricity
-improved the lives of millions of Americans with electric power, flood protection, soil reclamation, and jobs
Rural Electrification Administration (REA)
provided low-cost loans to private electric companies to encourage them to build power plants and transmission lines to provide electricity to rural communites
"domestic allotment plan"
-to reduce production, the government paid individual farmers who agreed not to plant crops on a portion of their fields (their "allotment")
-not effective in the South, where property owners took the portion of their land which was being worked by sharecroppers and tenant farmers out of production and assigned it to the allotment program - benefited the property owners and put poor farmers out of their homes
"Old Age Revolving Pension scheme"
proposed by Dr. Francis Townsend, it would pay every American over age 60 a pension of $200 per month IF they agreed to spend the entire amount each month in order to stimulate the economy
Name the rival politician who gave Roosevelt concern in the mid 1930s and why?
Huey Long - his ability to adapt his stump-speech style to the radio made him a concern.
- as senator he proposed a "soak the rich" tax bill which would outlaw personal income of more than $1 million and inheritances of more than $5 million - senate rejected his proposal
-his campaign for president in 1936 was based on his "Share the Wealth Plan."
In 1935, Roosevelt capitalized on his congressional majorities to enact major New Deal programs that provided a safety net for millions of Americans who suffered because of the depression. What was the rationale behind creating this emerging American welfare state?
The safety net of welfare programs were created because Roosevelt believed when individual Americans suffered because of forces beyond their control, the federal government had the responsibility to support and protect them.
By 1936, the Works Progress Administration (WPA) provided jobs for 7 percent of the nation's labor force. What types of jobs did the WPA provide?
-about 3 out of 4 jobs involved construction and renovation of the nations physical infrastructure (roads, bridges, parks, public buildings)
-artists were employed to paint murals depicting American life
- sewing rooms gave women work and wages plus the clothing they made was donated to the needy
The New Deal legislation encouraged labor unions. Why?
New Dealers believed that unions would counterbalance the organized might of big corporations by defending working people, maintaining wages, and replacing the bloody violence that often accompanied strikes with economic peace and commercial stability.
The most important New Deal reform of the industrial order guaranteed industrial workers the right to organize unions. If the majority of workers voted for a union, the union became the sole bargaining agent for the entire workplace and the employer was required to negotiate with the elected union leaders. This New Deal reform was called what?
The Wagner Act
With the support of the Wagner Act, union membership expanded from 3 million (almost entirely skilled workers) in 1933 when Roosevelt became President to 14 million by 1945. Who were these new union members?
Most were factory workers and unskilled laborers, many of them immigrants, women, and African-Americans.
By 1945, what percentage of the workforce in America was unionized?
30 percent, the highest in American history
How did the CIO-affiliated United Auto Workers (UAW) succeed in organizing workers at General Motors?
They organized a sit down strike that slashed the General Motors plant's production of 15,000 cars per week to a mere 150. General Motors surrendered and agreed to make the UAW the sole bargaining agent for all the company's workers. The entire auto industry was organized by 1941.
In steel and other major industries, such as the anti-union southern textile mills, union organizing efforts stalled until after 1941. What happened then?
Military mobilization created labor shortages that gave workers greater bargaining power.
What was the single most important feature of the New Deal's emerging welfare state?
The political struggle for Social Security highlighted _____ ________ among Americans.
What are the key provisions of Social Security?
- Used tax contributions from workers and their employers to fund pensions for the elderly.
-Stipulated that, upon reaching retirement age, workers would earn benefits based on their contributions and years of work.
-Placed no means test on eligibility for benefits.
- Created unemployment insurance that provided modest benefits for workers who lost their jobs.
Not all workers benefited from the Social Security Act. Who did not benefit?
It excluded domestic and agricultural workers, thereby making ineligible about half of all African Americans and more than half of all employed women - about 5 million people total.
Which citizens were most neglected by the New Deal reforms? Why?
African Americans. New Deal reforms required the political support of powerful, segregationist, southern white Democrats who would be alienated by programs that aided blacks.
Who was the first black woman to head a federal agency (also the highest-ranking black official in Roosevelt's administration?
Mary McLeod Bethune. Sponsored by Eleanor Roosevelt, she was appointed head of the National Youth Administration's Division of Negro Affairs.
How did Hispanic Americans fare under New Deal programs?
The New Deal programs discriminated against Hispanic Americans. to preserve scarce jobs for US citizens the federal government stopped immigration from Mexico, while state and local officials deported tens of thousands of Mexican Americans, many with their American-born children.
How did Asian Americans fare under the New Deal?
Asian immigrants were still excluded from US citizenship and in many states were not permitted to own land.
How did Native Americans fare under the New Deal?
Native Americans were the poorest of the poor.
New Deal's Indian Reorganization Act (IRA)
-provided little economic aid to Native Americans
BUT - it did restore their right to own land communally and to have greater control over their own affairs.
Who is Alfred (Alf) Landon?
Republican presidential nominee who was defeated spectacularly by Roosevelt in the election of 1936.
Why did Roosevelt propose the court-packing plan?
Conservative justices appointed by Republican presidents had invalidated 11 New Deal measures as unconstitutional interferences with free enterprises.
Why did Roosevelt's court-packing plan fail?
The president had not reckoned with Americans' deeply rooted deference to the independent authority of the Supreme Court. More than 2/3s of Americans believed that the Supreme Court should be free from political interference.
Roosevelt named more justices to the Supreme Court than any other President. How many justices did he appoint?
In 1937 what triggered a sharp recession that undermined economic recovery and prolonged the depression?
-Roosevelt believed the economy was improving and reduced government spending. The reduction in government spending reversed the improving economy.
- In 1938, Congress enacted a massive new program of federal spending.
What did the recession scare of 1937-1938 teach Roosevelt?
Economic growth must be carefully nurtured.
What is Keynesian economics?
Argument by English economist John Maynard Keynes that only government intervention could pump enough money into the economy to restore prosperity.
From the moment Roosevelt was sworn in, he had sought to do what?
expand the powers of the presidenty
Farm Security Administration (FSA)
Created by the Agriculture Department in 1937, it's purpose is to provide housing and loans to help tenant farmers become independent.
Agriculture Adjustment Act
Created in 1938, it offered renewed prosperity for those who owned farms. It placed production quotas on various crops while issuing food stamps to allow poor people to obtain surplus food.
National Housing Act
-Created in 1937.
-for the first time, the federal government took an active role in providing decent urban houses.
Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938
-set standards for wages and hours and at long last curbed the use of child labor
-this Act slowly advanced Roosevelt's inaugural promise to improve the living standards of the poorest Americans.
In 1939, Roosevelt signaled a halt to New Deal reforms by speaking about preserving the progress already achieved. Give 2 reasons why.
-despite unprecedented achievements, nobody needed reminding that these achievements had not ended the depression
-ominous threats by Germany and Japan, led Roosevelt to propose defense expenditures that surpassed New Deal appropriations for relief and economic recovery
What was the most impressive achievement of the New Deal?
-The greatest economic crisis the nation had ever faced did not cause Americans to abandon democracy nor did the nation turn to radical alternatives such as socialism or communism.
Name some of the New Dealers greatest achievements.
-Social Security which provided modest pensions for the elderly
-Wagner Act which encouraged the organization of labor unions
"Government was the problem, not the solution."
slogan Americans championed during and after the 1980s that led to the dismantling of a number of New Deal programs, including the regulation of banking.
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