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ANSC 108 Exam 2
Terms in this set (68)
Dairy Cow that has the highest percent butter fat milk
Calving and starting milk production
How long is the average dry period?
Negative Energy Balance
Period of time that a cow is expending more energy producing milk than the energy provided by her feed intake
How much does a gallon of milk weight?
Artificial Insemination is used almost exclusively in dairy operations due to
1. Dairy bulls tend to be very aggressive
2. Few top bulls used by most farms, expedited genetic progress
3. Increased management required for dairying
What factors contributed to the move of the dairy industry from East to West?
Humidity and Climate, Land prices (due to population), Government regulations, and Change from traditional family to business type farms
Which state leads the nation in total pounds of milk per year?
What are the top milk producing countries in Texas?
Milk production per cow has increased 2 times the amount in the 1950s. What are the reasons for this improvement?
Management, Nutrition, and Genetics
When does peak lactation occur?
During the first 100 days (Stage 1)
What are the characteristics of Mastitis?
An inflammation of the udder, the affected quarter will be hot and swollen, and can reduce milk yield.
There are five major traits on which dairy cows are judged. What are they and how are they weighted?
Dairy character 20%
Body Capacity 10%
Feet and Legs 15%
Udder 40% (Most Worth)
What are hutches?
Hutches allow full supervision of feeding behavior and intake. Also prevents calf-to-calf contact and reduce disease spread.
What are Freestall Barns?
Individual stalls bedded with sand that provide a cool, shady bedding place in the summer, and should provide adequate ventilation to keep the cow as cool as possible.
What makes a milking machine work?
Female that has not produced a calf
What is a Feedlot?
Beef cattle enterprise where cattle are placed in confinement, fed harvested feeds and fattened for slaughter.
Texas in number one in the Nation in:
Total Cattle, Ranches, Beef Cows, Cattle on Feed, Fed Cattle Marketed, and Feedlots over 5,000 head
Gestation Length (Beef Cattle)
Length of Estrus(Beef Cattle)
Length of Cycle(Beef Cattle)
What are the Top 2 Cow/calf states?
Texas and Nebraska
What are the Top 3 states in terms of number of cattle feed?
Texas, Nebraska, and Kansas
Cow- Calf Production
Where the calf is born
Where the cattle grows from weaning to weight- ready for entrance feedlot. Not heavy enough
Where the cattle is high concentrated and ready for slaughter
What is Check-off fund and how does it work?
$1/hd and is used for advertisement and marketing of breed products.
Why do we castrate male calves?
Steers are more docile in temperature, produces a carcass with finer texture of lean and more marbling, and can also be mixed with females in pasture or in lots without causing any management problems
What is a burdizzo?
A bloodless tool used to castrate males
Is correlated with sperm production and fertility, also indicative of age at puberty in daughters
What scrotal circumference is considered acceptable in yearling bulls?
Greater than 30 cm
What adjustments are made to accurately assess weaning weights in calves?
Weaning Age of calf, Age of Dam, Sex of Calf
Age 5-10 years
Produce more milk than both their younger and older herd mates
Expected Progeny Difference, which predicts the difference in performance of the future offspring of a parent
Which EPD directly impacts dystocia?
Birth weight of calf, Sex of calf, Pelvic size of cow heifer, cow
What are the Top 3 countries in terms of beef cattle numbers?
Indian, Brazil, United Station
Ampullary-Isthumic junction (AIJ)
Actual site of fertilization
What is the primary reproductive organ in the male?
Produce sperm cells
At what temperature does the Testes needs to maintain?
4 degrees C below body temp
How is the temp regulated?
1. Scrotum (Tunica Dartos muscle will contract when temp falls- Skin wrinkles)
2. Cremaster muscle (Temp falls and muscle contracts-Pulls testes closer to the body)
3. Pampiniform Plexus (Complex network of blood vessels that cool the blood entering the testes)
Contribute to fluid volume of semen
Vesicular Glands (Seminal vesicles)
Nutrients and Buffering
Produces thin, watery fluid to cleanse the urethra before ejaculation
Bulbourethral Glands (Cowper's Glands)
Account for gel-like portion of semen in boars and helps force semen from urethra at the same time of ejaculation
What is the importance of Oxytocin in females?
1. Induces milk let down
2. Released during parturition to cause uterine contractions to aid in fetal and placental expulsion
Where progesterone produced in the cow?
Released from the corpus luteum and placenta
What hormone is responsible for maintaining pregnancy?
In cattle, how is A.I achieved?
Rectocervical(Rectovaginal) which requires one hand in the rectum to guide the cervix onto the catheter passed through the vagina.
Advantages of A.I.
Genetic Improvement through increased use of superior sires
Disease control (STD's)
Improved record keeping
Eliminates need for bulls kept on farm
May be more economical than natural service
Disadvantage of A.I
Time required for estrus detection
Percent of cows in estrous during the breeding season
Trained personnel required: Service and semen supplier, Training as A.I technician
Overuse of inferior sires
What is the AM/PM rule?
Cows that are detected in estrus in the morning are bred that same afternoon, those found in the afternoon should be bred the next morning
What are the functions Swine(Monogastric)?
Mouth, Esophagus, Stomach, Small Intestine, Large Intestine
Duodenum(Digestive), Jejunum(Nutrient absorption- Amino acids, sugar molecules, fatty acids, and glycerol), lleum(Nutrient absorption- Villi- Small finger like projections that increase surface area and slow passage)
Where does the Path of Feedstuff follow?
From initial ingestion, all the way to defecation
What does Horses not have that other animals does?
A Gall Bladder
What can Cows do that Horses cannot?
Where does bacterial fermentation occur in the horse?
In the Large Intestine, which is the Cecum
A digestive upset that's in the Stomach
What is the function of the Gizzard(Ventriculus)
Grinds feed into finer particles by strong muscular contractions.
What is considered the "True stomach" in ruminants?
What are the 4 compartments in the "Stomach" in ruminants?
1. Reticulum(Honeycomb Pattern)
2.Rumen(Largest compartment in mature bovine)
The largest compartment at maturity is
Gastric or Esophageal groove
Allows milk consumed by the suckling animal tp bypass the reticulo-rumen and thus escape bacterial ferminatation
Permits animal to graze quickly, then complete chewing later.
Rensalivation (Secretes more saliva)
Process of Expelling Gases from the rumen
What is a Balance Ration?
The process of ration formulation involves combining the following information in such a way as to supply nutrients to the animal to satisfy nutrients demands.
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