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48 terms

Psych M/C 7.1 & 7.2

STUDY
PLAY
1. Psychologists use the term _________ to refer to a relatively permanent change in knowledge or behavior resulting from experience.
a. maturation
b. development
c. learning
d. perception
c; Easy
2. The study of learning is closely associated with the __________ approach in psychology.
a. psychodynamic
b. Gestalt
c. cognitive
d. behaviorist
d; Easy
3. According to your text, the behaviorists viewed the study of learning as a more scientific alternative to the use of introspection. In this instance, the behaviorists were reacting to the work of the _________ psychologists.
a. structuralist
b. functionalist
c. psychodynamic
d. Gestalt
a; Moderate
4. Which of the following statements best expresses the relationship between learning on the one hand, and conditioning on the other?
a. Conditioning and learning are the same thing.
b. Conditioning is part of learning.
c. Learning is part of conditioning.
d. Learning and conditioning are unrelated.
b; Moderate
5. The ability to associate stimuli with responses is termed __________.
a. conditioning
b. learning
c. perception
d. cognition
a; Easy
6. Stimulus is to response as _________ is to __________.
a. mind; body
b. conditioning; learning
c. environment; behavior
d. behavior; environment
c; Moderate
7. How are conditioning, insight, and modeling related, if they are at all?
a. Conditioning, insight, and modeling are all types of learning.
b. Conditioning, insight, and modeling are all similar to learning.
c. Conditioning, insight, and modeling are all the same type of learning.
d. The three processes are unrelated.
a; Moderate
8. ___________ is credited with laying the foundation for the study of classical conditioning in psychology.
a. Thorndike
b. Skinner
c. Pavlov
d. Watson
c; Moderate
9. Pavlov's dogs learned to associate the appearance of a lab assistant with the sight of food. This suggests that classical conditioning involves an association between:
a. a stimulus and either another stimulus or a response
b. a stimulus and a response
c. two responses
d. two stimuli
d; Moderate
10. _________ is a type of learning in which a neutral stimulus comes to elicit a response after being paired with a stimulus that would elicit the same response naturally.
a. Classical conditioning
b. Operant conditioning
c. Observational learning
d. Instrumental conditioning
a; Easy
11. Broadly speaking, nature is to nurture as the _______ is to the ________.
a. CS; US
b. CR; UR
c. neutral stimulus; CS
d. UR; CR
d; Difficult
12. In Pavlov's study, the US was _______; the neutral stimulus was _________; and, finally, the CS was _________.
a. meat; the bell; meat
b. the bell; the bell; meat
c. the bell; meat; meat
d. meat; the bell; the bell
d; Moderate
13. Tim loves dill pickles. Now, the sight of a jar on the supermarket shelf makes his mouth water. In the terminology of classical conditioning, the sight of the jar is a(n) _________.
a. CS
b. US
c. neutral stimulus
d. CR
a; Moderate
14. Alexis uses cocaine, which activates her sympathetic nervous system. Expecting her dealer, her hands shake and her heart pounds. Which alternative below correctly identifies the neutral stimulus, the CS, and the US?
a. neutral stimulus—knock on the door; CS—cocaine; US—cocaine
b. neutral stimulus—knock on the door; CS—knock on the door; US—pounding heart
c. neutral stimulus—knock on the door; CS—knock on the door; US—cocaine
d. neutral stimulus—cocaine; CS—knock on the door; US—cocaine
c; Difficult
15. In classical conditioning, how are the neutral stimulus and the CS related?
a. They are not related; they are completely different stimuli.
b. They are the same thing; the terms are interchangeable.
c. The neutral stimulus becomes the CS.
d. The CS becomes a neutral stimulus.
c; Moderate
16. __________ occurs when a previously conditioned response decreases in frequency when the CS is presented in the absence of the US.
a. Extinction
b. Habituation
c. Adaptation
d. Deconditioning
a; Easy
17. Which of the following scenarios exemplifies extinction?
a. Alexis is a former cocaine user. Now that she no longer uses, her hands no longer shake and her heart no longer pounds when she hears a car pull into her drive, like her dealer used to do in his car.
b. Alexis uses cocaine. She no longer feels quite the same rush as she did when she first started using.
c. Alexis is a former cocaine user in recovery. After a relapse, though, her hands shake and her heart pounds when she hears a car pull into her drive, like her dealer used to do in his car.
d. Alexis uses cocaine. To feel the effects of the drug, she needs a larger amount of the drug than she did in the past.
a; Moderate
18. Which of the following sequences correctly arranges the phases of the classical conditioning process, from first to last?
a. acquisition --> spontaneous recovery --> extinction
b. extinction --> spontaneous recovery --> acquisition
c. spontaneous recovery --> acquisition --> extinction
d. extinction --> acquisition --> spontaneous recovery
e. acquisition --> extinction --> spontaneous recovery
e; Difficult
19. Which of the following scenarios best exemplifies spontaneous recovery?
a. Alexis is a former cocaine user. Now that she no longer uses, her hands no longer shake and her heart no longer pounds when she hears a car pull into her drive, like her dealer used to do in his car.
b. Alexis uses cocaine. She no longer feels quite the same rush as she did when she first started using.
c. Alexis is a former cocaine user in recovery. After a relapse, though, her hands shake and her heart pounds when she hears a car pull into her drive, like her dealer used to do in his car.
d. Alexis uses cocaine. Her heart pounds and her hands shake not only when she sees her dealer's car pull into her drive, but also when she sees a similar car pull into her drive.
c; Moderate
20. Which of the following terms best expresses the relationship between stimulus generalization and stimulus discrimination?
a. They are unrelated.
b. They are opposites.
c. They are the same thing.
d. Stimulus discrimination is a type of stimulus generalization.
b; Moderate
21. Often, a conditioned response may be elicited not only by the original CS, but by a similar one as well. This is known as stimulus:
a. control
b. discrimination
c. generalization
d. diffusion
c; Easy
22. June's cat runs to the kitchen at the sound of the electric can opener, but not when a blender is used. June's cat is demonstrating stimulus:
a. control
b. extinction
c. generalization
d. discrimination
d; Easy
23. In ________ conditioning, an existing CS can act as a US in a pairing with a new CS.
b. generalized c. superordinate d. second-order
e. higher-level
d; Moderate
24. May's cat runs to the kitchen not only when it hears the electric can opener, but also when it hears May open the cabinet to retrieve the can opener. Which alternative identifies the CS(s) for the cat's behavior of running?
a. the sound of the can opener b. the sound of the cabinet door c. the smell of the food
d. both A and B
d; Difficult
25. May's cat runs to the kitchen not only when it hears the electric can opener, but also when it hears May open the cabinet to retrieve the can opener. This example illustrates ________ conditioning. When May's cat runs at the sound of the cabinet door opening, the sound is a(n) ________ stimulus.
a. second-order; unconditioned b. second-order; neutral c. second-order; conditioned
d. sequential; unconditioned
c; Moderate
26. Which of the following defines unconditioned stimulus (US)?
a. Something that naturally creates a response
b. Something that creates a response only after conditioning
c. A naturally-occurring behavior
d. A behavior that is acquired
a; Easy
27. Which of the following defines conditioned stimulus (CS)?
a. Something that naturally creates a response
b. Something that creates a response only after conditioning
c. A naturally-occurring behavior
d. A behavior that is acquired
b; Easy
28. In classical conditioning, which of the following pairs are most similar?
a. CS; US
b. US; UR
c. CS: CR
d. UR; CR
d; Easy
29. In its discussion of second-order conditioning, your text offers the example of feeling good each Friday, the day one receives one's paycheck. The paycheck is associated with the pleasures it can buy. With respect to this example, which of the following statements is true?
a. Friday is a US for the response of feeling good.
b. The paycheck is a US for the response of feeling good.
c. Feeling good on a Friday is a UR.
d. Friday is a CS in its association with the check.
d;; Moderate
30. Psychologists use the term _________ to refer to an irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation.
a. panic attack
b. phobia
c. psychosis
d. neurosis
b; Easy
31. Which of the following statements best expresses the implication of Garcia's taste conditioning work for Pavlov's theory of classical conditioning?
a. Garcia's work extends Pavlov's theory.
b. Garcia's work supports Pavlov's theory.
c. Garcia's work constrains Pavlov's theory.
d. Garcia's work refutes Pavlov's theory.
c; Moderate
32. Garcia's taste conditioning research underscores the contribution of _______ to classical conditioning; it is most consistent with a(n) ___________ approach to psychology.
a. nurture; evolutionary
b. nurture; cognitive
c. nature; cognitive
d. nature; evolutionary
d; Difficult
33. Jonas is a veteran of the war in Iraq. He suffers from PTSD. Now, back home in a quiet California neighborhood, he jumps when he hears a firecracker or a car backfire. In the terminology of classical conditioning, these sounds are best thought of as ________ stimuli.
a. neutral
b. unconditioned
c. second-order
d. conditioned
d; Moderate
34. Janine completed several tours of duty in Afghanistan. She suffers from PTSD. Now, back home in Texas, she is frightened by firecrackers and cars backfiring. The fact that these sounds scare her reflects a process of stimulus _________.
a. extinction
b. discrimination
c. generalization
d. association
c; Moderate
35. Based on your text's discussion, how might the classical conditioning processes underlying PTSD differ from those operating in more mundane circumstances?
a. PTSD reflects especially strong CS-US associations.
b. In PTSD, the CS-US associations are slow to extinguish.
c. PTSD reflects especially extensive stimulus generalization.
d. PTSD reflects a particularly high degree of stimulus discrimination.
e. both A and B
e; Moderate
TRUE-FALSE QUESTIONS:
36. In classical conditioning, the stimulus that normally triggers a naturally occurring response is termed the unconditioned stimulus.
T; Easy
37. In a Pavlovian experiment, a tone might serve as a US for the response of salivation.
F; Moderate
38. The term adaptation is used to refer to the reduction in response that occurs when a CS is repeatedly presented in the absence of the US.
F; Moderate
39. Spontaneous recovery entails an increase in response.
T; Moderate
40. An irrational fear of a specific object is termed a phobia.
T; Easy
41. Garcia's taste conditioning work suggests that nature plays little role in classical conditioning.
F; Moderate
FILL-IN-THE-BLANK QUESTIONS:
...
42. In Pavlov's study, the bell is both a(n) _______ stimulus and a conditioned stimulus.
neutral; Moderate
43. A bright flash automatically causes us to blink. It is a(n) ________ stimulus.
unconditioned; Moderate
44. _________ occurs when an extinguished CR reappears after a period of rest.
Spontaneous recovery; Moderate
45. Adam was badly stung by a bee once. Now he is frightened not only of bees but of all flying insects. This example illustrates ____________.
stimulus generalization; Moderate
46. Brittany is intensely and irrationally afraid of dogs. Brittany has a(n) _______.
phobia; Easy
47. In ___________ conditioning, an existing CS may serve as a US in a pairing with a new CS.
second-order; Moderate