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What is biometrics?

The measurement of physiological measurement or biometrics
(this is exactly how she put it in her notes)

How are physiological measures acquired?

-via various observational techniques
-indicators of subject physiology

What are physiological measures needed for?

studying both outcomes of care and monitoring health status' of patients

What is based on these readings of physiological measures?

alteration of treatment regimens and decision regarding counseling and learning needs of clients

The notion of total _______ of physiological measures is highly questionable


A physiological measure can result in data that is only as _______ as the approach generating it


physiological measures are just as amenable to the introduction of _______ _______ as other types of measurement approaches

measurement error

A major strength of physiological measures is what?

precision and objectivity

Precision and objectivity are only as good as what?

as the methods and measures employed

The three major types of physiological measures are what?

1. biophysical
2. biochemical
3. microbiologic or microscopic

What are biophysical indicators used as?

as measures of the physical properties of the organism

What are some of the most common biophysical indicators measured?

weight, height, temperature, volume, pressure

What are bioinstruments?

Tools that are used to measure biological phenomena

What are some examples of bioinstruments?

radiography, ultasonic, ECG, EEG, and evoked potentials (e.g. visual, auditory, & tactile)

Most electronic equipment use _______ _______ for measurement of variables.

sensing equipment

What do the sensing equipment use to measure the physical phenomena?


How do the transducers work?

The output of transducers is always an electric signal which is representative of the phenomena measured

How is the data from the transducers read?

the signal from the transducer is amplified or modified; then display equipment transforms the signal by the signal-conditioning equipment which allows visualization of the waveform of a signal by displaying time, phase, voltage, or frequency of a physiological input signal

What is artifact?

extraneous components of a signal which can affect readings

What are some sources of artifact?

noise, the subject, & problems in calibration of the instrument

What are biochemical measurements?

they involve the use of chemical laboratory procedures for the identification or quantification of biochemical physiological variables, such as serum hormone or electrolyte levels

What are some techniques used to obtain biochemical measurements?

centrifugation, chromatography, electrophoresis, spectrophotometry, & immunologic techniques

The first step of measuring biochemical variables involves...

collection of the specimen. Ensure proper procedure is followed and the proper amount is obtained and proper container is used

The second step of measuring biochemical variables involves...

preservation and storage of the specimen. The storage temperature and type of container can affect reliability.

The third step of measuring biochemical variables involves...

following all established guideline regarding type of equipment, laboratory guides, and manuals.

The fourth step of measuring biochemical variables involves...

ensuring equipment is in good working order and is tested at periodic intervals. Use proper reagents or substances when producing chemical reactions and ensure they are not outdated

The fifth step of measuring biochemical variables involves...

reading and recording the results. Miscalculations can affect reliability and validity.

What are microbiologic/microscopic measurements?

consists of identifying or quantification of microorganisms; measurement consists of identification of microorganisms within physiological specimens (bacteria, molds, protozoa) and the identification or quantification of structure and components of bodily tissues (bacterial counts, cell histology)

The process of collecting, preserving, analyzing, and recording the results of microbiologic/microscopic specimens is very similar to those of _______ _______.

biochemical measurement

What are some disadvantages associated with physiological measures?

1. they are often costly and time-consuming to analyze
2. often the measurement protocol involves complex, multi-step procedures
3. at each point in the protocol, there is the possibility of errors
4. often the techniques of using the measure are complex and difficult to learn

What are some sources of intra-individual variability?

diurnal rhythms, circadian rhythms, circadian periodicity, menstrual cycle, seasonal cycles, & aging

In biometrics and medical technology, _______ is used instead of reliability and _______ is used in place of validity

precision; accuracy

What is precision?

the amount of consistency, reproducibility, or repeatability among measures

Duplicate measurement methods are similar to which procedures found in nursing and psychosocial literature?

test-retest, inter-rate reliability, and/or intra-rater reliability

What would be better to use, Cohen's kappa/percent of agreement or the correlation coefficient?

Cohen's kappa/percent of agreement

What is accuracy?

measures the correctness of the physiological measures.

How is the level of accuracy determined?

by the selectivity, sensitivity, and specificity of measure

What is selectivity?

refers to the ability of an instrument to identify correctly under study and differentiate it from all other signals

What is sensitivity?

in bioinstrumentation, it refers to the smallest amount of change in a parameter that can be detected or measured precisely

How could content validity be evaluated?

by contacting the experts in lab procedures or bioinstrumentation. They can review the approach or methods used and determine if they are appropriate for the physiologic variable being measured

How could construct validity be evaluated?

it can be tested by using contrasted groups and/or experimental methods approaches. Contrasted groups are used when one group of subjects who are known to be high on a trait are contrasted to another group who are known to be low on the trait being tested

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