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Chemical Digestion and Urinary System

Lugol's Iodine (detects)

this testing solution detects presence of starch (complex sugar or polysaccharides)

Benedict's (detects)

this testing solution detects presence of simple sugars

Biurets (detects)

this testing solution detects presence of proteins

Simple sugars (example of)

monosaccharide, disaccharide

Complex sugars ( example of)

polysaccharides (like starch)

Polysaccharides (example of)

starch type of saccharide

Biurets (color)

This testing solution is Blue alone, but turns Purple in the presence of protein

Lugol's Iodine (color)

This testing solution is Amber/ yellow alone, but turns black in the presence of starch

37 C (body temp)

= 98.6 F

Starch (examples of)

Amylose and Amylopectin

Starches (are)

Polysaccharides formed from glucose monomers by plants

Glycogen (made of)

Made up of glucose monomers and is the stored from of carbohydrate in the human body (polysaccharide)

Enzyme (example of)

Digestive amylase (example of; correlation to substrates)

Enzymes (are)

Catalyst that speeds up a reaction, Cuts a molecule(polymer) Found in Saliva or Pancreas

Substrate (example of)

starch (example of this; correlation to enzyme)

Benedict's (color)

This testing solution is blue alone, but turns Red/Orange in the presence of simple sugars ( ex: Monosaccharides glucose, maltose or Disaccharide: Lactose = glucose+ galactose)

Benedicts (change occured with)

This testing solution turned Red/Orange with
-milk (orange)
-glucose (red)

Biuret's (change occured with)

this testing solution turned Purple with
-Albumin (dark purple)
-milk (light purple)

Lugol's Iodine (change occured with)

this testing solution turned black with

Amylase (effects on starch)

This enzyme begins to breakdown starch

Benedicts (boiled because)

this solution was boiled to attached color to molecule not to breakdown molecule further

Kidney (3 layers of connective tissue surrounding)

1. Renal capsule
2. Adipose capsule
3. Renal fasica

Renal capsule

The innermost layer, that adheres to surface of kidney( thin membrane that covers kidney)

Adipose Capsule

middle layer surrounding kidney. Adipose tissue around insulates provides cushion and energy ( located between renal fascia and renal capsule)

Renal Fascia

The outermost layer that secures kidney to surrounding structures and to posterior abdominal wall (holds in place) A layer of dense irregular connective tissue

Renal arteries

(Right and Left going into kidney)(thicker due to pressure) branch from abdominal aorta and bring oxygenated unfiltered blood to the kidneys. blood into = unfiltered

Renal veins

(right and left) (thinner due to pressure)carry deoxygenated, filtered blood away from the kidneys into the inferior vena cava. blood out = filtered

Renal Cortex

Outer Edge within kidney, the most superficial contains part of nephron

Renal Medulla

Deeper within kidney (middle contains part of nephron)

Renal Pyramid

Located within renal medulla. Cone shaped extensions of the cortex

Renal Papilla

Located at the apex of the Renal Pyramid where urine is drained


The structural and functional unit of the kidney that form urine

Renal Column

Located between each renal pyramid. Separates renal pyramids in renal medulla. (Technically part of cortex but comes in towards medulla)

Renal sinus

Space or cavity that is adjacent to the medulla and extends to the renal hilus

Minor calyx

Located in Renal sinus: space where urine enters. (cup-like structures adjacent to the renal papille which receive urine from the papillary ducts

Major calyx

Located in renal sinus: combo of 2 or more minor calyces drain into this

Renal pelvis

located within the renal sinus: large area where urine collects before entering ureter.


Long narrow muscular tubes that descend toward the urinary bladder and enter the posterior wall of the bladder

Renal hilus

Area where blood vasculature goes in and out. Fissure in concave surface of kidney through which blood vessels and ureters pass

Ureteral orifice

Ureteral opening into the urinary bladder

Internal urethral orifice

opening at base of bladder. opening into urethra and surrounded by internal urethral sphincter

Internal urethral sphincter (Controlled by)

this sphincter in urethra is made of smooth muscle and is under involuntary control (Autonomic Nervous system)

Internal urethral sphincter

valve that controls passage of urine into the urethra from the urinary bladder


Tube that drains urine from bladder to exit body

External Urethral Orafice

Opening trough which urine exits body

External Urethral Sphincter (controlled by)

this sphincter in urethra is made of skeletal muscle and is under voluntary control (Somatic Nervous System)

External Urethral Sphincter

Valve that is within Urogenital diaphragm that permits passage of urine to the external urethral orifice

Urinary Catheter

Plastic tube placed in urethra to drain the urinary bladder (Short term and long term use)
Used for:
-urinary incontinence
-urinary retention

Urinary incontinence

(Leakage of urine )the inability to control when you urinate. (Can be caused by UTI (inflammation) or problem with sphincter

Urinary retention

Being unable to empty the bladder when you need to
ex. Prostate enlargement (inflammation) in males due to portion of urinary system in prostate. Tx. Surgery, drugs or catheter to temp drain

Urinary Bladder

Located anterior to rectum (males) Located anterior to vagina and inferior to uterus (females). Hollow muscular organ that distends to store urine

Urethra (In males)

3 portions in males
1. Prostatic Urethra- passes through the prostate gland
2. membranous urethra - passes through the urogenital diaphragm
3. Spongy urethra - passes through the penis

Urinary and Reproductive system (in males)

A portion of the reproductive system and urinary system merge together

Urinary and Reproductive sytem (in females)

Reproductive and urinary system are separate


aka Urination, voiding

Glomerular (bowman's) Capsule

1st part of nephron. a cup shped epithelial membrane surround the glomerulus


1st set of Capillary network of nephron. Blood is filtered across a this filtration membrane

Proximal convoluted tubule

Located in the renal cortex and connects to loop of henle. In close part to nephron (where the process of reabsorption occurs)

Descending loop of henle

portion of nephron where flow of filtrate is descending (dips into renal medulla)

Ascending loop of henle

portion of nephron where flow of filtrate begins to ascend (dips into renal medulla)

Distal convoluted tubule

portion of nephron that is located in the renal cortex (returns to afferent /efferent)

Collecting duct

Urine from (collects from) several other nephrons (dct's) drain into this. They descend through renal pyraminds

Papillary duct

collects urine from merging collecting ducts.

Afferent arteriole

larger diameter arteriole (flow into structure) delivers systemic blood to the glomerulus

Efferent arteriole

Smaller diameter arteriole (flow exits structure) delivers to peritubular capillary network

Peritubular capilaries

2nd set of capillaries associated with both cortical nephrons and juxtamedullary nephrons. (entwines the renal tubule )Reabsorption and secretion occur here

Renal corpuscle

Consist of glomerulus and glomerular capsule

Vasa recta

also a 2nd set of capillaries but associated only with juxtamedullary nephrons

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