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68 terms

A& P Lab Exam 2 40c

Chemical Digestion and Urinary System
STUDY
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Lugol's Iodine (detects)
this testing solution detects presence of starch (complex sugar or polysaccharides)
Benedict's (detects)
this testing solution detects presence of simple sugars
Biurets (detects)
this testing solution detects presence of proteins
Simple sugars (example of)
monosaccharide, disaccharide
Complex sugars ( example of)
polysaccharides (like starch)
Polysaccharides (example of)
starch type of saccharide
Biurets (color)
This testing solution is Blue alone, but turns Purple in the presence of protein
Lugol's Iodine (color)
This testing solution is Amber/ yellow alone, but turns black in the presence of starch
37 C (body temp)
= 98.6 F
Starch (examples of)
Amylose and Amylopectin
Starches (are)
Polysaccharides formed from glucose monomers by plants
Glycogen (made of)
Made up of glucose monomers and is the stored from of carbohydrate in the human body (polysaccharide)
Enzyme (example of)
Digestive amylase (example of; correlation to substrates)
Enzymes (are)
Catalyst that speeds up a reaction, Cuts a molecule(polymer) Found in Saliva or Pancreas
Substrate (example of)
starch (example of this; correlation to enzyme)
Benedict's (color)
This testing solution is blue alone, but turns Red/Orange in the presence of simple sugars ( ex: Monosaccharides glucose, maltose or Disaccharide: Lactose = glucose+ galactose)
Benedicts (change occured with)
This testing solution turned Red/Orange with
-milk (orange)
-glucose (red)
-maltose(red)
Biuret's (change occured with)
this testing solution turned Purple with
-Albumin (dark purple)
-milk (light purple)
Lugol's Iodine (change occured with)
this testing solution turned black with
-starch
Amylase (effects on starch)
This enzyme begins to breakdown starch
Benedicts (boiled because)
this solution was boiled to attached color to molecule not to breakdown molecule further
Kidney (3 layers of connective tissue surrounding)
1. Renal capsule
2. Adipose capsule
3. Renal fasica
Renal capsule
The innermost layer, that adheres to surface of kidney( thin membrane that covers kidney)
Adipose Capsule
middle layer surrounding kidney. Adipose tissue around insulates provides cushion and energy ( located between renal fascia and renal capsule)
Renal Fascia
The outermost layer that secures kidney to surrounding structures and to posterior abdominal wall (holds in place) A layer of dense irregular connective tissue
Renal arteries
(Right and Left going into kidney)(thicker due to pressure) branch from abdominal aorta and bring oxygenated unfiltered blood to the kidneys. blood into = unfiltered
Renal veins
(right and left) (thinner due to pressure)carry deoxygenated, filtered blood away from the kidneys into the inferior vena cava. blood out = filtered
Renal Cortex
Outer Edge within kidney, the most superficial contains part of nephron
Renal Medulla
Deeper within kidney (middle contains part of nephron)
Renal Pyramid
Located within renal medulla. Cone shaped extensions of the cortex
Renal Papilla
Located at the apex of the Renal Pyramid where urine is drained
Nephron
The structural and functional unit of the kidney that form urine
Renal Column
Located between each renal pyramid. Separates renal pyramids in renal medulla. (Technically part of cortex but comes in towards medulla)
Renal sinus
Space or cavity that is adjacent to the medulla and extends to the renal hilus
Minor calyx
Located in Renal sinus: space where urine enters. (cup-like structures adjacent to the renal papille which receive urine from the papillary ducts
Major calyx
Located in renal sinus: combo of 2 or more minor calyces drain into this
Renal pelvis
located within the renal sinus: large area where urine collects before entering ureter.
Ureters
Long narrow muscular tubes that descend toward the urinary bladder and enter the posterior wall of the bladder
Renal hilus
Area where blood vasculature goes in and out. Fissure in concave surface of kidney through which blood vessels and ureters pass
Ureteral orifice
Ureteral opening into the urinary bladder
Internal urethral orifice
opening at base of bladder. opening into urethra and surrounded by internal urethral sphincter
Internal urethral sphincter (Controlled by)
this sphincter in urethra is made of smooth muscle and is under involuntary control (Autonomic Nervous system)
Internal urethral sphincter
valve that controls passage of urine into the urethra from the urinary bladder
Urethra
Tube that drains urine from bladder to exit body
External Urethral Orafice
Opening trough which urine exits body
External Urethral Sphincter (controlled by)
this sphincter in urethra is made of skeletal muscle and is under voluntary control (Somatic Nervous System)
External Urethral Sphincter
Valve that is within Urogenital diaphragm that permits passage of urine to the external urethral orifice
Urinary Catheter
Plastic tube placed in urethra to drain the urinary bladder (Short term and long term use)
Used for:
-urinary incontinence
-urinary retention
Urinary incontinence
(Leakage of urine )the inability to control when you urinate. (Can be caused by UTI (inflammation) or problem with sphincter
Urinary retention
Being unable to empty the bladder when you need to
ex. Prostate enlargement (inflammation) in males due to portion of urinary system in prostate. Tx. Surgery, drugs or catheter to temp drain
Urinary Bladder
Located anterior to rectum (males) Located anterior to vagina and inferior to uterus (females). Hollow muscular organ that distends to store urine
Urethra (In males)
3 portions in males
1. Prostatic Urethra- passes through the prostate gland
2. membranous urethra - passes through the urogenital diaphragm
3. Spongy urethra - passes through the penis
Urinary and Reproductive system (in males)
A portion of the reproductive system and urinary system merge together
Urinary and Reproductive sytem (in females)
Reproductive and urinary system are separate
Micturition
aka Urination, voiding
Glomerular (bowman's) Capsule
1st part of nephron. a cup shped epithelial membrane surround the glomerulus
Glomerulus
1st set of Capillary network of nephron. Blood is filtered across a this filtration membrane
Proximal convoluted tubule
Located in the renal cortex and connects to loop of henle. In close part to nephron (where the process of reabsorption occurs)
Descending loop of henle
portion of nephron where flow of filtrate is descending (dips into renal medulla)
Ascending loop of henle
portion of nephron where flow of filtrate begins to ascend (dips into renal medulla)
Distal convoluted tubule
portion of nephron that is located in the renal cortex (returns to afferent /efferent)
Collecting duct
Urine from (collects from) several other nephrons (dct's) drain into this. They descend through renal pyraminds
Papillary duct
collects urine from merging collecting ducts.
Afferent arteriole
larger diameter arteriole (flow into structure) delivers systemic blood to the glomerulus
Efferent arteriole
Smaller diameter arteriole (flow exits structure) delivers to peritubular capillary network
Peritubular capilaries
2nd set of capillaries associated with both cortical nephrons and juxtamedullary nephrons. (entwines the renal tubule )Reabsorption and secretion occur here
Renal corpuscle
Consist of glomerulus and glomerular capsule
Vasa recta
also a 2nd set of capillaries but associated only with juxtamedullary nephrons