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mitosis constantly renews this layer, which forms a barrier between the body and the external enviroment
the stratum corneum is an effective barrier that prevents the loss of _______ from the body and also prevents entry of ________ and _________.
water, bacteria, chemicals
if the skin is subjected to constant pressure, a thicker are epidermis will be formed. More cells are produced by the process of ______ in the _______ (layer).
mitosis, stratum germinativum
if the skin is subjected to friction, layers of the epidermis may be separated, and ______ will collect in the area and form a ______.
tissue fluid, blister
when langerhans cells phagocytize pathogens, they carry them to ______ (types of WBC'S) found in ______.
lymphocytes, lymph nodes
in response to the pathogen, the lymphocytes initiate an immune reaction such as the production of _______.
explain the function of melanin (not to give skin color)
acts as a barrier and prevents further exposure of the living stratum germinativum and roaming langerhans cells to uv rays
merkel cells are found in the ________ and are receptors for the sense of ____.
stratum germinativum, touch
the free nerve endings in the dermis are the receptors for the cutaneous sense of _____, ____, _____, _____.
pain, heat, cold, itch
the encapsulated nerve endings in the dermis are the receptors for the cutaneous senses of _____, and ______.
touch , pressure
explain why the skin of the palm is more sensitive to touch than is the skin of the shoulder?
there are more receptors in the palm than the shoulder
another function of of hair is to provide insulation from the cold for the _____ (PART OF THE BODY)
in stress situations, the _______ in the dermis will constrict to shunt blood to more vital organs
the vitamin formed in the skin is vitamin _____, which is made from _______ when the skin is exposed to _______.
D, cholesterol, UV Rays
the function of vitamin D is to promote the absorption of _______ and _______ in the small intestine.
name the two types of connective tissue in the dermal layer
areolar (loose) connective tissue, adipose tissue
the areolar connective tissue contains many white blood cells that destroy ______ that have entered ______
pathogens, breaks in the skin
areolar connective tissue also contains mast cells that produce ______ when tissue damage occurs; this substance contributes to the process of _______
the adipose tissue contains cells that are specialized to store ____ as a source of potential ____
state 2 other functions of subcutaneous fat
cushions bony prominences, provides insulation against cold
the role of the skin in the maintenance of body temperature depends upon the ______ glands and the small arteries called _______
eccrine sweat, arterioles
this will _____ (increase or decrease) blood flow through the dermis, and body heat will be ______ ( lost or retained)
this will ______ (increase or decrease) blood flow through the dermis, and the body heat will be _____ (lost or retained)
the tissue in the walls of the arterioles that permits vasoconstriction or vasodilation is
extensive third degree burns may be very serious because of the loss of which layer of the epidermis
state the 2 potentially serious problems for patients with extensive third degree burns
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