38 terms

Ch. 7 - States of Consciousness

STUDY
PLAY
Consciousness
our awareness of ourselves and our environment
Biological rhythms
periodic physiological fluctuations
Circadian rhythm
the biological clock; regular bodily rhythms (for example, of temperature and wakefulness) that occur on a 24-hr cycle
REM sleep
rapid eye movement sleep, a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur. Also known as paradoxical sleep, because the muscles are relaxed (except for minor twitches) but other body systems are active
Alpha waves
the relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state
Sleep
periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness - as distinct from unconsciousness resulting from a coma, general anesthesia, or hibernation
Hallucinations
false sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus
Delta waves
the large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep
Insomnia
recurring problems in falling or staying asleep
Narcolepsy
a sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. The sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep, often at inopportune times
Sleep apnea
a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and consequent momentary reawakenings
Night terrors
a sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified; unlike nightmares, it occurs during stage 4 sleep, within 2 or 3 hours of falling asleep, and are seldom remembered
Dream
a sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person's mind; they are notable for their hallucinatory imagery, discontinuities, and incongruities, and for the dreamer's delusional acceptance of the content and later difficulties remembering it
Manifest content
according to Freud, the remembered story line of a dream
Latent content
according to Freud, the underlying meaning of a dream. Freud believed that dream's latent content functions as a safety valve
REM rebound
the tendency for REM sleep to increase REM sleep deprivation (created by repeated awakenings during REM sleep)
Hypnosis
a social interaction in which one person suggests to another that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behavior will spontaneously occur
Posthypnotic suggestion
a suggestion, made during a hypnosis session, to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized; used by clinicians to help control undesired symptoms and behaviors
Dissociation
a split in consciousness, which allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others
Psychoactive drug
a chemical substance that alters perceptions and mood
Tolerance
the diminishing effect with regulare use of the same dose of a drug, requiring the user to take larger and larger doses before experiencing the drug's effect
Withdrawal
the discomfort and distress that follow discontinuing the use of an addictive drug
Physical dependence
a physiological need for a drug, marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the drug is discontinued
Psychological dependence
a psychological need to use a drug, such as to relieve negative emotions.
Addiction
compulsive drug craving and use
Depressants
drugs (such as alcohol, barbiturates, and opiates) that reduce neural activity and slow body functions
Barbiturates
drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgement
Opiates
opium and its derivatives, such as morphine and heroin; they depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety
Stimulants
drugs (such as caffeine, nicotine, and the more powerful amphetamines and cocaine) that excite neural activity and speed up body functions
Amphetamines
drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes
Methamphetamines
a powerfully addictive drug that stimulates the central nervous system, with speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes; over time, appears to reduce baseline dopamine levels.
Ecstasy (MDMA)
a synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen. Produces euphoria and social intimacy, but with short-term health risks and longer-term harm to serotonin-producing neurons and to mood and cognition
Hallucinogens
psychedelic ("mind-manifesting") drugs, such as LSD, that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images int eh absence of sensory input
Lysergic acid diethylamide(LSD)
a powerful hallucinogens drug: also known as acid
THC
the major active ingredient in marijuana; triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations
Near-death experience
an altered state of consciousness reported after a close brush with death (such as through cardiac arrest); often similar to drug-induced hallucinations
Dualism
the presumption that mind and body are two distinct entities that interact
Monism
the presumption that mind and body are different aspects of the same thing