17 terms

Antigone and Greek Theater Study Guide

STUDY
PLAY
Protagonist
Leading role
Deuteragonist
2nd actor
Tritagonist
3rd actor
Sophecles
-496-406 B.C.
-Added third actor
-Fixed number of Chorus to fifteen
-Introduced painted scenery
-Made each play of the trilogy separate in nature
-Age 16: Lead in choir of boys
-Age 28: competed in festival of plays in city of Dionysia
-Won first place prize in 468 B.C.
-Won 18 first place prizes
-Wrote 120 plays; 7 survived
Deus ex machina
Artificial or improbable character or event may be introduced to resolve the plot
Masks
-Larger than life masks
-Identified age, gender, emotion
Costumes
-Long, flowing robes
-High boots, often with raised soles
Structure of the theater
A. Theatron-Seeing place where the audience sat
B. Orchestra-Circular dancing place where the actors and Chorus performed
C. Thymele- Altar to Dionysus in center of orchestra
D. Skene- Building used as dressing room
E. Proskenion-Facade of skene building which served as backdrop
F. Parodos- Entrance to the theater used by Chorus
Origin of Tragedy
-Religious festivals in honor of Dionysus
-City of Dionysia- Religious festival held in spring
-Dithyramb- Hymn sung in honor of the god
Chorus- Group of about 50 who sang and danced
Thespis
-"Father of Drama"
- 6th Century B.C.
-Won prize for tragedy in 535 B.C.
-Introduced the first actor to the Chorus and therefore, dialogue
Aeschylus
-525-426 B.C.
-Added second actor
-Wrote trilogies on unified themes
Euripides
-486-406 B.C.
-Credited as the most tragic
-reduced participation of Chorus in main action
-Tried to humanize characters
-Relied on heavy prologues and dues ex machina endings
Chorus Music and Dance
-Musical accompaniment for choral odes were usually flutes, lyres and percussion
-Dance defined as expressive rhythmical movement
Chorus Function
-Sets overall mood and expresses theme
-Adds beauty (theatrical effectiveness) through song and dance
-Gives background information
-Divides action and offers reflections on events
-Questions, advises, expresses opinion- usually through Chorus leader called the Choragus
-Choragus: helps develop the theme and give insights
Unities
-Action: Simple plot
-Time: single day
-Place: one scene throughout
Messenger
-Tells news happening away from the scene
-Reports acts of violence not allowed to be seen
Limitations of Theater
-Continuous presence of Chorus
-No intermissions; continuous flow of action and choral odes
-No lighting; no curtains