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Terms in this set (43)
or breathing, is the inhalation and exhalation of air and involves the exchange of air between the atmosphere and the alveoli of the lungs.
_____ is the exchange of gases between the alveoli of the lungs and the blood in pulmonary capillaries across the respiratory membrane. In this process, pulmonary capillary blood gains O2 and loses CO2.
_____is the exchange of gases between blood in systemic capillaries and tissue cells. In this step the blood loses O2 and gains CO2.
The rate of airflow and the amount of effort needed for breathing are also influenced by...
alveolar surface tension, compliance of the lungs, and airway resistance.
Air moves into the lungs when the air pressure inside the lungs is l_________. Air moves out of the lungs when the air pressure inside the lungs _________.
ess than the air pressure in the atmosphere; is greater than the air pressure in the atmosphere
1 atm = _____mmHg
The inverse relationship between volume and pressure if called _____
Contraction of the diaphragm is responsible for about ____ of the air that enters the lungs during quiet breathing. The remaining % is due to the _____.
75%; contraction of the external intercostals.
The pressure between two pleural layers in the pleural cavity, is called
As the volume of the lungs increases in this way, the pressure inside the lungs, called the________, drops from 760 to 758 mmHg.
alveolar (intrapulmonic) pressure
The accessory muscles of inhalation include the _________, which elevate the sternum; the ______, which elevate the first two ribs; and the _________, which elevate the third through fifth ribs.
sternocleidomastoid muscles; scalene muscles; pectoralis minor muscles
The _______ in the medulla regulates the basic rhythm of ventilation. This area contains two smaller regions called _______.
rhythmicity area; Inspiratory and expiratory area.
A thin layer of alveolar fluid coats the luminal surface of alveoli and exerts a force known as _______.
The _______ present in alveolar fluid reduces its surface tension below the surface tension of pure water.
surfactant (a mixture of phospholipids and lipoproteins)
_________ is a breathing disorder of premature newborns in which the alveoli do not remain open due to a lack of surfactant.
Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS)
______ refers to how much effort is required to stretch the lungs and chest wall.
Decreased lung compliance occurs in ______ due to destruction of elastic fibers in alveolar walls.
The rate of airflow through the airways depends on both the pressure difference and the _______.
resistance (Signals from the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system cause relaxation of this smooth muscle, which results in bronchodilation and decreased resistance.)
The term for the normal pattern of quiet breathing is_________.
eupnea (ūp-NĒ-a; eu- = good, easy, or normal; -pnea = breath)
Forced exhalation against a closed rima glottidis as may occur during periods of straining while defecating.
Valsalva (val-SAL-va) maneuver
While at rest, a healthy adult averages ____ breaths a minute, with each inhalation and exhalation moving about _____ mL of air into and out of the lungs.
The volume of one breath is called the ______.
tidal volume (VT)
The _______—the total volume of air inhaled and exhaled each minute.
minute ventilation (MV) = Respiratory rate X tidal volume
The apparatus commonly used to measure the volume of air exchanged during breathing and the respiratory rate is a _________.
spirometer (spī-ROM-e-ter; spiro- = breathe; -meter = measuring device) or respirometer (res′-pi-ROM-e-ter)
On a spirogram, inhalation is recorded as an ________, and exhalation is recorded as a ________.
upward deflection; downward deflection
What is the respiratory zone consisted of?
the respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, and alveoli.
What is an easy rule of thumb for determining the volume of your anatomic dead space?
It is about the same in milliliters as your ideal weight in pounds.
The ______ is the volume of air per minute that actually reaches the respiratory zone.
alveolar ventilation rate
When taking a deep breath, the additional inhaled air, called the______, is about 3100 mL in an average adult male and 1900 mL in an average adult female
inspiratory reserve volume
Breathing in and then exhaling as much air as possible demonstrates _____.
The _______ is the volume of air that can be exhaled from the lungs in 1 second with maximal effort following a maximal inhalation.
forced expiratory volume in 1 second, (FEV1.0)
Typically, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) greatly reduces FEV1.0 because COPD ______.
increases airway resistance
1200 mL (1100 ml)
Even after the expiratory reserve volume is exhaled, considerable air remains in the lungs because the subatmospheric intrapleural pressure keeps the alveoli slightly inflated, and some air remains in the noncollapsible airways.
______ provides a medical and legal tool for determining whether a baby is born dead (stillborn) or died after birth.
Minimal volume (Air remaining after intracellular pressure rises to equal the atm pressure and forces out some of the residual volume)
______ is the sum of tidal volume and inspiratory reserve volume
________ is the sum of residual volume and expiratory reserve volume
Functional residual capacity
According to _______, each gas in a mixture of gases exerts its own pressure as if no other gases were present.
The atmospheric air is a mixture of gases, whose total pressure is calculated simply by adding all of the partial pressures.
_____states that the quantity of a gas that will dissolve in a liquid is proportional to the partial pressure of the gas and its solubility.
_____ is the use of pressure to cause more O2 to dissolve in the blood.
Hyperbaric oxygentation is an effective technique in treating patients infected by ...
anaerobic bacteria, such as those that cause tetanus and gangrene. (they cannot live in the presence of free O2)
Decompression sickness is caused by...
divers ascending to the serface to quickly causing nitrogen to come out of solution to soon and forms gas bubble in the tissue.
External respiration in the lungs converts ______ coming from the right side of the heart into _____ that returns to the left side of the heart
deoxygenated blood (depleted of some O2); oxygenated blood (saturated with O2)
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