Cervical Vertebra (n=7)
C-1 through C-7

C-7, May or may not have bifid spinour process. Has transverse foramina

refers to the neck or the necklike portion of an organ or structure.
1st Cervical Vertebra

Has large transverse processes called wings and no dorsal process... articulates with the skull

has NO vertebral body

allows the foward/back motion of the head - i.e. nodding
2nd Cervical Vertebra

has large, broad dorsal spinous projections and cranial projection that fits into C-1

joint formed with C-1 (by the dens) allows for the pivoting motion of the head - side to side
Superior Process of C-2
2nd Cervical Vertebra

also called "ondontoid process"

Cranial projection of the axis, projects superiorly from the body and is cradled in the anterior arch of the atlas: pivot point for the rotation of the atlas

lacks typical vertebral body
Thoracic Vertebrae (n=12)
T-1 through T-12

Grouping of similarities of T-2 through T-9: articular facets on the lateral sides which support the ribs; has superior and inferior half facets, called "demifacets," each articulates with 4 ribs

T-10: has (all 4) WHOLE costal facets, especially on the transverse processes

Vertebrae of the chest or thorax. Have large dorsal spines that tend to slant caudally. Small transverse process that articulate with the ribs
Lumbar Vertebrae (n=5)
L-1 through L-5

of or relating to or near the part of the back between the ribs and the hipbones

Vertebrae of the small of the back. Have large transverse process, may be flexible in some species (dog and cat) or stiff (cow)
Spinous process
A slender projection from the back of a vertebra to which muscles and ligaments are attached

single projection arising from the posterior aspect of the vertebral arch, fused laminae

Posterior projection from the junction of the two laminae. Attachment site for muscles. Not present in the atlas.

Short (anterior to posterior), broad (superior to inferior), and horizontal, like those of the lumbar vertebrae ('hatchet'-shaped)...T12
Transverse processes
Two pieces of bone that project posterolaterally from the junctions of the pedicles and laminae

Lateral projections from junctions of lamina and pedicle. Attachment site for muscles and ligaments.

This is the lateral protrusion on vertebrae that contains the transverse foramen.
Intervertebral discs
These structures exist between the vertebrae. They are composed of three parts; the articular cartilage on the surfaces of the vertebral bodies, the anulus fibrosus that surrounds the structure, and the nucleus pulposus. Functionally they are important because they are responsible for the curvatures that develop in the normal vertebral column and they help in absorbing shock that is transferred to the vertebral column. Collectively they are responsible for about 25% of the length of the vertebral column.
Intervertebral foramen
Opening formed by the inferior and superior notches on the pedicles of adjacent vertebrae. Allows passage of spinal nerves and vessels, through which the spinal nerves exit

The openings into the vertebral canal bounded by the pedicles of adjacent vertebrae above and below, the vertebral bodies anteriorly, and the articular processes posteriorly.
Transverse foramen
Paired openings on the transverse processes of cervical vertibrae (only).

allow for passage of blood vessels-
of the vertabral artery, vein, and nerve
These vessels are important because they serve the brain.

Main structure of transverse process that is small, duplicated, or absent on C7
uncinate process
The bony, hook like process located on the lateral margins of the subaxial cervical vertebral bodies.of the superior (top) surface of the vertebral bodies of the third to the seventh cervical vertebrae and first thoracic vertebra. This bony part prevents a vertebra from sliding backwards off the vertebra below it (i.e. it prevents posterior linear translation movements of the vertebral bodies) and limits lateral flexion. Luschka's joints involve the vertebral uncinate processes.

(C-2) The body of the axis does not have this process
mamillary process
A smoothly rounded projection on the back of each lumbar superior articular process

(?) - The Superior Tubercle of T12 is a homologue of the lumbar __________

in LUMAR vertebrae - attachment to multifidus, on top of articular process
sternal angle
Junction of the manubrium and body of the sternum at the level of the second costal the level between the bodies of thoracic vertebrae 4 and 5. It is an important landmark as it is where the costal cartilage of rib 2, the first rib that can be palpated, joins the sternum.

is a reference point for counting ribs and intercostal spaces

This is a name for the manubriosternal joint and is a:
Symphysis Joint found between the Body and Manubrium (a joint whithin a bone) allows for slight hinge when breathing

the angle formed by the articulation between the manubrium and the body of the sternum a synchondrosis; the cartilage within this joint usually does not become ossified until old age; the angle formed by this articulation is also called the angle of Louis; the sternal angle marks the level of the second costal cartilage from which all other ribs are counted

results where the manubrium & body meet at a slight angle to each other, so that a transverse ridge is formed at the level of the second ribs.

The most anterior and inferior border of the superior mediastinum

junction of the manubrium with the body at the level of the second costal cartilages. Symphysis joint since the bony surface are covered w/ hyaline cartilage and connected by fibrocartilage

imperfect angle formed where the bottom of the (hexagonal-shaped) manubrium meets the "gladiolus"
median sacral crest
(posterior sacral crest)

Located on the lateral surfcae of the sacral groove. A tubercules produced by the fusion of the articular processes of the sacral vertebra.

A remnant of the spinous processes of the fused vertebrae, lump on posterior surface of sacrum creating ridges
(wing or pinion) - wings of the sacrum

the fusion of the first sacral vertebrae; the lateral surfaces of this articulate with the illium of the coxal bone forming the sacroilliac joint

zygoapophyseal joint
-synovial joint between superior and inferior articular processes
-functions in mechanical support, permitting specific movements, preventing slippage
costal facet
Only found on T10, T11, and T12

laterally , each side of the thoracic vertebral body bear two facets commonly referred to as these; one at the superior edge and the other at the inferior edgeon the transverse processes - it's where a rib will attach to one spinous process and two vertebral bodies
Two on each side, 1 superior and 1 inferior -Articulation with capitulum of rib -Superior articulates with same-numbered rib
an articulating surface of the centrum (main body) which revieces the head of a rib.
Smooth surface on a bone where movement takes place on ribs
wedge-shaped bone consisting of five fused vertebrae
interior smooth, posterior bumpy
stabilizes the pelvis
composite bone; articulates with the hip bone laterally
forms the posterior wall of the pelvis

protects reproductive, digestive and excretory organs; has an auricular surface for articulation with the pelvic girdle; articulates with the fused elements of the coccyx
forms the end of the spine or vertebral column - "tailbone"

humans and tailless apes at the base of the spinal column
sacral curviture
rudimentary/poorly formed

attached to sacrum by ligaments. (gives support to pelvic organs) provides an attachment site for a number of ligaments and for a muscle that constricts the anal opening.

Level of Pubic Symphysis and Greater Trochanters

the inferior-most 4 coccygeal vertebrae although it varies from 3 to 5 vertebrae. Usually the inferior vertebrae are fused together, while the vertebra that is most superior may not be fused to the sacrum. have usually begun fusing by age 26;

It can be broken during a fall, or sometime during the delivery of a baby
part of the vertebral arch that connects to the body
slender connection between body and transverse process
attached to and extends posteriorly on either side of body of vertebra
Small foot or foot-like process.
Defective portion of vertebra with spondylolisthesis in cervical area
A narrow strip of tissue by which an avulsed piece of tissue remains connected to the body
ant. portion of the arch
This structure has a Superior Vertebral notch/incisure that is deeper than the typical thoracic vertebrae (T1)
Posterior projection to vertebral body that supports the lamina
lamina junctions

portion of the neural arch just posteriorto the body snd snterior to the lamina
short, bony posterior projection
The two short, rounded processes that extend posteriorly, one from each lateral margin of the dorsal surface of the vertebral body.
The walls of the vertebral arch. attached to and extends posteriorly on either side of body of vertebra
connects transverse process to the body of the vertebrae

anterior portion of the arch Superior and inferior vertebral notches (aka incisures) Intervertebral foramen (aka IVF)
bony pillars that attach the vertebral arch to body
Short, extending posteriorly, with little lateral deviation (S1)
a bony projection that extends posteriorly from each side of the vertebral body. connects the body w/the transverse process
Two vertebral notches Shallow one on superior surface and a deeper on inferior surface
The Pedicleare are two short, thick processes, which project backward, one on either side, from the upper part of the body, at the junction of its posterior and lateral surfaces. (Vertebrae) .
the basal part of each side of the neural arch of a vertebra connecting the laminae with the bodies
foot of the arch, one on each side, that forms the lateral wall of the vertebral foramen; attached to body
short, thick processes that project posteriorly from the vertebral body to unite w/ the flat LAMINAE to form VERTEBRAL ARCH (LUMBAR)
Connecting the vertebrae body to the vertabrae arch, these are two short thick processes which project backward on either side from the upper part of the body at the junction of its posterior and lateral surfaces.
forms the root of the vertebral arch

Latin for "small foot"
Vertebral foramen
Formed by the vertebral arch and the posterior surface of the vertebral body

Hole through center of the bone that allows the spinal never to pass and offers protection

Forms a descending tunnel called the sacral canal

Circular in shape; smaller than in the cervical or lumbar regions

the opening encircled by the vertebral arch of each vertebra

When Stacked together form the Vertebral Canal which houses the Spinal Cord

This feature is of functional importance since it provides for the passage of the spinal cord. It gets progressively smaller as one moves inferiorly. The large size is not necessary in the inferior regions because the spinal cord becomes smaller in diameter as it moves inferiorly. This occurs because the spinal nerves are leaving it at each intervertebral foramen. The spinal cord normally ends in the adult human at the level of the inferior edge of L1 body.

This feature is of functional importance since it provides for the passage of the spinal cord. It gets progressively smaller as one moves inferiorly. The large size is not necessary in the inferior regions because the spinal cord becomes smaller in diameter as it moves inferiorly. This occurs because the spinal nerves are leaving it at each intervertebral foramen. The spinal cord normally ends in the adult human at the level of the inferior edge of L1 body.
the main body of a vertebra

A feature common to all vertebrae, a depression in which the intervertebral disc rests.

Part of the vertebrae that occupies the position earlier taken by the notochord

disc-shaped, weight bearing region of vertebrae


body of the vertebrae, especially a body without epiphyseal rings

the interior space that peridium encloses

The primary ossification center for the central mass of the vertebral body

part of the primary ossification centers anterior ossification center
-Cartilaginous vertebral body -Replaces Notochord -2 chondrification centers one in each arch

feature common to all vertebrae a depressure in which the intervertebral disc rests
central bone/ main part in vertebrae
what term describes the body of a vertebra; where weight transfers along the vertebral column?

body. thick & disc-shaped. located at the anterior of the vertebra, this is the weight-bearing structure of the vertebra

part of vertebra, drum shaped body, forms the thick anterior portion of bone, disks are fastened to roughened upper and low surfaces of these bodies
central body, ventral to the nerve cord
calcified vertebrae
This ossification center forms the central part of the vertebral body.
Latin = centre.
under neural canal

Central vertebral mass of cancellus bone and red marrow with a shell of cortical bone
Vertebral arch
Posterior projection from the body of a vertebra that encloses the vertebral foramen. Consists of paired pedicles and laminae. The spinous, transverse, and articular processes arise from the arch.

part of the vertebrae which is formed by the walls (pedicles) and roof (lamina) and provides a space for the spinal cord; articulates with other vertebrae at the superior and inferior articular processes

composed of pedicles and laminae that, along with the centrum enclose the vertebral foramen
Superior articular facet
thoracic & lumbar

Spinal joint that faces upward and limits movement, protects spinal cord

Process projecting superiorly from the lamina-pedicle junction. Articular facet faces posteriorly and superiorly.
superior rests atop the pedicle. inferior underneath. provides mating of two adjacent vertebrae and limits movement thus protecting spinal cord and allowing limited rotating and rocking motion

pinal joint that faces upward and limits movement, protects spinal cord

Indented surfaces on the superior aspect of the lateral masses of the atlas which articulate with the occipital condyles.

smooth face facet that articulates with the vertebra above
..., a thin plate or layer (especially of bone or mineral)
, (1) A thin layer or flat plate: (2) the portion of a vertebra between the transverse process and the spinous process.
, flat sheet of thyroid cartilage is _____.
, Two flattened plates of bone extending medially from the pedicles.
layer (lamina propria) USER-CONTRIBUTED
a thin plate of bone connecting the transverse and spinous processes USER-CONTRIBUTED
thin plate of layer USER-CONTRIBUTED
the nuclear envelope is supported by an interior scaffolding of protein fibers called the.. USER-CONTRIBUTED
provide scaffolding of protein fibers, highly conserved USER-CONTRIBUTED
The nuclear envelope is supported by an interior scaffolding of protein fibers (microfilaments