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organization of people with shared policy goals entering the policy process at several points to try to achieve those goals; pursues goals in many arenas.
theory of government and politics that emphasizes that politics is mainly a competition among groups, each one pressing for its own preferred politics.
theory of government and politics that contends that societies are divided among class lines and that an upper-class elite will rule, regardless of the formal niceties of governmental organization.
theory of government and politics that contends that groups are so strong that governments are weakened; extreme, exaggerated, or perverted form of hyperpluralism.
network of groups within the American political system that exercise a great deal of control over specific policy areas; composed of interest group leaders interested in a particular policy, the government agency in charge of administering that policy, and the members of congressional committees and subcommittees handling that policy; also known as iron triangles.
a group of people who might be interest group members because its members share some common interest; always larger than an actual group.
something of value that cannot be withheld from a group member (money, tax write-offs, etc.).
problem faced by unions and other groups when people do not join a group because they can benefit from a group's activities without officially joining; bigger problem with larger groups.
Olson's law of large groups
principal stating that "the larger the group, the further it will fall short of providing an optimal amount of a collective good," according to Mancur Olson.
goods that a group can restrict to those who pay its annual dues (information publications, travel discounts, etc.).
groups that have a narrow interest, tend to dislike compromise, and often draw membership from people new to politics.
"communication, by someone other than a citizen acting on their own behalf, directed to a governmental decision-maker with the hope of influencing their decision," according to Lester Milbrath.
direct group involvement in the electoral process; examples include groups funding campaigns, providing testimonies, and getting members to work for candidates.
Political action committees (PACs)
political funding vehicles created by the 1974 campaign finance reforms; can be created by a corporation, union, or some other interest group under the FEC, which meticulously monitors the ____________'s expenditures.
Amicus curiae briefs
legal briefs submitted by a "friend of the court" for the purpose of raising additional points of view and presenting information not contained in the briefs of the formal parties; attempt to influence a court's decision.
Class action suits
lawsuits permitting a small number of people to sue on behalf of all other people similarly situated.
provision found in some collective bargaining agreements which requires all employees of a business to join the union within a short period, usually within 30 days, and remain members as a condition of employment.
state law forbidding the requirement that workers must join a union to hold their jobs; state-level versions of these laws were permitted by the Taft-Hartley Act of 1947.
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