Terms in this set (84)

It" talk. When clients say "it" instead of "I," they are using depersonalizing language. The counselor may ask them to substitute personal pronouns for imper- sonal ones so that they will assume an increased sense of responsibility.
• "You" talk. Global and impersonal language tends to keep the person hidden. The therapist often points out generalized uses of "you" and asks the client to sub- stitute "I" when this is what is meant.
• Questions. Questions have a tendency to keep the questioner hidden, safe, and unknown. Gestalt counselors often ask clients to change their questions into statements. In making personal statements, clients begin to assume responsibility for what they say. They may become aware of how they are keeping themselves mysterious through a barrage of questions and how this serves to prevent them from making declarations that express themselves.
• Language that denies power. Some clients have a tendency to deny their personal power by adding qualifiers or disclaimers to their statements. The therapist may also point out to clients how certain qualifiers subtract from their effective- ness. The counselor must be careful in intervening so that clients do not feel that everything they say is subject to scrutiny. Rather than fostering a morbid kind of introspection, the counselor hopes to foster awareness of what is really being expressed through words.
• Listening to clients' metaphors. By tuning into metaphors, the therapist gets rich clues to clients' internal struggles. Beneath the metaphor may lie a suppressed internal dialogue that represents critical unfin- ished business or reactions to a present interaction. For example, to the client who says she feels that she has been put through a meat grinder, the therapist could ask: "What is your experience of being ground meat?" or "Who is doing the grind- ing?" It is essential to encourage this client to say more about what she is experi- encing. The art of therapy consists of assisting clients in translating the meaning of their metaphors so that they can be dealt with in therapy.
• Listening for language that uncovers a story. Clients are likely to slide over pregnant phrases, but the alert therapist can ask questions that will help them flesh out their story line. It is essential for therapists to pay attention to what is fascinating about the person who is sitting before them and get that person to tell a story.
trategies include self-monitoring, self-reward, self-contract- ing, and stimulus control. The basic idea of self-management assessments and in- terventions is that change can be brought about by teaching people to use coping skills in problematic situations.
1. Selecting goals. Goals should be established one at a time, and they should be measurable, attainable, positive, and significant for you. It is essential that expecta- tions be realistic.
2. Translating goals into target behaviors. Identify behaviors targeted for change. Once targets for change are selected, anticipate obstacles and think of ways to negotiate them.
3. Self-monitoring. Deliberately and systematically observe your own behavior, and keep a behavioral diary, recording the behavior along with comments about the relevant antecedent cues and consequences.
4. Working out a plan for change. Devise an action program to bring about actual change. Various plans for the same goal can be designed, each of which can be effective. Some type of self-reinforcement system is necessary in this plan because reinforcement is the cornerstone of modern behavior therapy. Self-reinforcement is a temporary strategy used until the new behaviors have been implemented in everyday life. Take steps to ensure that the gains made will be maintained.
5. Evaluating an action plan. Evaluate the plan for change to determine whether goals are being achieved, and adjust and revise the plan as other ways to meet goals are learned. Evaluation is an ongoing process rather than a one-time occurrence, and self-change is a lifelong practice.
1. wants (exploring wants, needs, and perceptions) Reality therapists assist clients in discovering their wants and hopes. All wants are related to the five basic needs. The key question asked is, "What do you want?" Through the therapist's skillful questioning, clients are assisted in defining what they want from the counseling process and from the world around them. Qulity world
2.direction and doing The focus on the present is characterized by the key question asked by the reality therapist: "What are you doing?" Even though problems may be rooted in the past, clients need to learn how to deal with them in the present by learning better ways of getting what they want. Problems must be solved either in the present or through a plan for the future. The therapist's challenge is to help clients make more need-satisfying choices.
3.self-evaluation Self-evaluation is the cornerstone of reality therapy pro- cedures. The core of reality therapy, as we have seen, is to ask clients to make the following self-evaluation: "Does your present behavior have a reasonable chance of getting you what you want now, and will it take you in the direction you want to go?" Specifically, evaluation involves the client examining behavioral direction, specific actions, wants, perceptions, new directions, and plans
4.planning and action Much of the significant work of the counseling process involves helping clients identify specific ways to fulfill their wants and needs. Once clients determine what they want to change, they are generally ready to explore other possible behaviors and formulate an action plan. The key question is, "What is your plan?"