was the main originator and developer of Gestalt therapy. settled in Big Sur, California, where he conducted workshops and seminars at the Esalen Institute, carving out his reputation as an innovator in psychotherapy. Here he had a great impact on people, partly through his professional writings, but mainly through personal contact in his workshops. ariously as insightful, witty,
bright, provocative, manipulative, hostile, demand-
ing, and inspirational. Unfortunately, some of the
people who attended his workshops went on to
mimic the less attractive side of Perls's personality.
Even though Perls was not happy with this, he did
little to discourage it. Married to LAURA POSNER PERLS who practiced a nicer version of the therapy
When figures emerge from the background but are not completed and resolved, individuals are left with unfinished business, which can be manifested in unex- pressed feelings such as resentment, rage, hatred, pain, anxiety, grief, guilt, and abandonment. Unacknowledged feelings create unnecessary emotional debris that clutters present-centered awareness. Because the feelings are not fully expe- rienced in awareness, they linger in the background and are carried into present life in ways that interfere with effective contact with oneself and others: "These incomplete directions do seek completion and when they get powerful enough, the individual is beset with preoccupation, compulsive behavior, wariness, oppressive energy and much self-defeating behavior" Blocked energy is another form of defensive behavior. It can be manifested by tension in some part of the body, by posture, by keeping one's body tight and closed, by not breathing deeply, by looking away from people when speaking to avoid contact, by choking off sensations, by numbing feelings, and by speaking with a restricted voice, to mention only a few.Some of the therapeutic endeavor involves finding the focus of interrupted energy and bringing these sensations to the client's awareness. Clients may not be aware of their energy or where it is located, and they may experience it in a negative way. One of the tasks of the therapist is to help clients identify the ways in which they are blocking energy and transform this blocked energy into more adaptive behaviors. Clients can be encouraged to recognize how their resistance is being expressed in their body. Rather than trying to rid themselves of certain bodily symptoms, clients can be encouraged to delve fully into tension states. For example, by allowing themselves to exaggerate their tight mouth and shaking legs, they can discover for themselves how they are diverting energy and keeping them- selves from a full expression of aliveness. Clients are given a set of instructions that teaches them to relax. They assume a passive and relaxed position in a quiet environment while alternately contracting and relax- ing muscles. This progressive muscle relaxation is explicitly taught to the client by the therapist. Deep and regular breathing also is associated with producing relaxation. At the same time clients learn to mentally "let go," perhaps by focus- ing on pleasant thoughts or images. Clients are instructed to actually feel and experience the tension building up, to notice their muscles getting tighter and study this tension, and to hold and fully experience the tension. It is useful for clients to experience the difference between a tense and a relaxed state. The client is then taught how to relax all the muscles while visualizing the various parts of the body, with emphasis on the facial muscles. The arm muscles are relaxed first, followed by the head, the neck and shoulders, the back, abdomen, and thorax, and then the lower limbs. Relaxation becomes a well-learned response, which can become a habitual pattern if practiced daily for about 25 minutes each day. 1. Okay with the client
2.progressive muscle relaxation
3.The therapist then works with the client to develop an anxiety hierarchy for each of the identified areas. Stimuli that elicit anxiety in a particular area, such as rejection, jealousy, criticism, disapproval, or any phobia, are analyzed. The thera- pist constructs a ranked list of situations that elicit increasing degrees of anxiety or avoidance.
4.does not begin until several sessions after the initial interview has been completed. Enough time is allowed for clients to learn relaxation in therapy sessions, to practice it at home, and to construct their anxiety hierarchy. The de- sensitization process begins with the client reaching complete relaxation with eyes closed. A neutral scene is presented, and the client is asked to imagine it. If the client remains relaxed, he or she is asked to imagine the least anxiety-arousing scene on the hierarchy of situations that has been developed. The therapist moves progressively up the hierarchy until the client signals that he or she is experiencing anxiety, at which time the scene is terminated. Relaxation is then induced again, and the scene is reintroduced again until little anxiety is experienced to it.
5. HW follow up
trategies include self-monitoring, self-reward, self-contract- ing, and stimulus control. The basic idea of self-management assessments and in- terventions is that change can be brought about by teaching people to use coping skills in problematic situations.
1. Selecting goals. Goals should be established one at a time, and they should be measurable, attainable, positive, and significant for you. It is essential that expecta- tions be realistic.
2. Translating goals into target behaviors. Identify behaviors targeted for change. Once targets for change are selected, anticipate obstacles and think of ways to negotiate them.
3. Self-monitoring. Deliberately and systematically observe your own behavior, and keep a behavioral diary, recording the behavior along with comments about the relevant antecedent cues and consequences.
4. Working out a plan for change. Devise an action program to bring about actual change. Various plans for the same goal can be designed, each of which can be effective. Some type of self-reinforcement system is necessary in this plan because reinforcement is the cornerstone of modern behavior therapy. Self-reinforcement is a temporary strategy used until the new behaviors have been implemented in everyday life. Take steps to ensure that the gains made will be maintained.
5. Evaluating an action plan. Evaluate the plan for change to determine whether goals are being achieved, and adjust and revise the plan as other ways to meet goals are learned. Evaluation is an ongoing process rather than a one-time occurrence, and self-change is a lifelong practice.
Rational emotive behavior therapy is based on the assumption that human beings are born with a potential for both rational, or "straight," thinking and irrational, or "crooked," thinking. People have predispositions for self-preservation, happiness, thinking and verbalizing, loving, communion with others, and growth and self- actualization. They also have propensities for self-destruction, avoidance of thought, procrastination, endless repetition of mistakes, superstition, intolerance, perfection- ism and self-blame, and avoidance of actualizing growth potentials. REBT encourages people accept themselves even though they will make mistakes. 1. wants (exploring wants, needs, and perceptions) Reality therapists assist clients in discovering their wants and hopes. All wants are related to the five basic needs. The key question asked is, "What do you want?" Through the therapist's skillful questioning, clients are assisted in defining what they want from the counseling process and from the world around them. Qulity world
2.direction and doing The focus on the present is characterized by the key question asked by the reality therapist: "What are you doing?" Even though problems may be rooted in the past, clients need to learn how to deal with them in the present by learning better ways of getting what they want. Problems must be solved either in the present or through a plan for the future. The therapist's challenge is to help clients make more need-satisfying choices.
3.self-evaluation Self-evaluation is the cornerstone of reality therapy pro- cedures. The core of reality therapy, as we have seen, is to ask clients to make the following self-evaluation: "Does your present behavior have a reasonable chance of getting you what you want now, and will it take you in the direction you want to go?" Specifically, evaluation involves the client examining behavioral direction, specific actions, wants, perceptions, new directions, and plans
4.planning and action Much of the significant work of the counseling process involves helping clients identify specific ways to fulfill their wants and needs. Once clients determine what they want to change, they are generally ready to explore other possible behaviors and formulate an action plan. The key question is, "What is your plan?"