Excelsior Biology Unit 8

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Blood flow in the heart
right atrium to the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery to the left atrium to the left ventricle to the aorta and the body.
Sinoatrial node or pacemaker
Located in the right atrium
Normal Blood Pressure
120/80. 120 is the systolic blood pressure and the 80 is the diastolic blood pressure
Plasma
The major component of blood. It is composed of 90% water.
Risk factors for heart disease and stroke
There are two types of risk factors, controllable and uncontrollable. Controllable factors include diet and exercise and uncontrollable factors include age, family history and gender.
Pharynx
The passageway for both food and air
Brain
Controls breathing
Smoking
Can cause chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and lung cancer
Endocrine System
Releases hormones into the blood, and helps maintain homeostasis by having two hormones with opposite effects regulate certain things. This system includes the pituitary, pineal, thyroid, and adrenal glands as well as the ovaries, testicles and pancreas.
Adrenal Gland
Produces epinephrine (commonly referred to as adrenaline) and norepinephrine which can increase heart rate and blood pressure
Feedback inhibition
Means that an increase in a substance will decrease production of that substance.
Seminiferous tubules
Produces sperm
Menstruation
Does not occur when the egg is fertilized
Zygote
A fertilized egg
Placenta
The interior lining of the uterus that provide nutrients to the fetus.
Germ Theory of Disease
States that infectious diseases are caused by microorganisms.
Infectious Diseases
Spread through coughing, sneezing, or physical contact, contaminated water and food, and infected animals. They can by caused parasites, pathogens and viruses.
Defense against disease
The body's first line of defense against infection includes the skin, mucous membranes, as well as acids in the stomach. The skin is the most important of these, but if it gets past that, the immune system responds.
Antigens
Triggers an immune response.
Antibiotics
Compounds that kill bacterial cells without harming the cells of humans or other animals. They are used to treat infectious diseases after they have developed in the body.
Vaccines
An injection of a weakened form of a pathogen, or a similar but less dangerous pathogen, into a body .
HIV
Spreads through the body by replicating inside the cells of the immune system.
Allergic Reaction
A misdirected immune system response against a harmless antigen.
Circulatory System
Acts like a transportation system for the body.
Circulatory System valves
Prevents the backward flow of blood.
Capillaries
The smallest blood vessels.
Hemoglobin
Part of the Red Blood Cell that includes the Iron that Oxygen connects to bring around the body.
Infections
When you get an infection, your body responds by increasing the number of white blood cells.
Platelets
Sent around the body in response to a scrape or cut. They are sent in to clump around the affected area, and then a clot forms.
Lymphatic System
The body system that collects the fluid that is lost by the blood and returns it to the circulatory system.
Respiration
The process by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged between cells, the blood, and air in the lungs.
Diaphragm
The contraction of this muscle forces air into the lungs.
Steroid hormones
Bind to receptors inside the target cell, can enter the nucleus and change the pattern of gene expression.
Pituitary Gland
Structure that releases hormones that regulate many of the other endocrine glands.
Pancreas
The gland that fails to produce enough of its hormone in the disease diabetes mellitus.
Puberty
When the testes and the ovaries do not begin making active reproductive cells until.
Female Reproductive System
This system functions to prepare the body to carry an embryo, to produce eggs, and to release eggs into the Fallopian tubes.
Fallopian tubes
Structure of the female reproductive system in which the chances of fertilization are very good if sperm are present along with an egg.
Gastrulation
Phase early in the embryonic development when the endoderm, ectoderm, and mesoderm forms.
Immunity
Active immunity antibodies are produced by your own body.