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Cardiac output

4-8 liters

stroke volume

amount of blood pumped when hert beats
70 ml is normal

significance of heart beat

number of times the ventricle contracts in one minute... nomral is 60-100

calculation for CO

SV x HR = CO

common nursing diagnosis

decreased cardiac output
(nausea, SOB, Increase HR, decrease BP, skin color change, decreased urinary output)
ineffective tissue perfusion
(something interfering with blood flow, ex. blood clot)
excessive fluid volume
(cooling extremities, fluid in lungs)

characteristics cardiac cells



each cell in the heart can start electrical impulse


abilty to respond to electricle stimulus


abilty to transmit electricity from one cell to the next


ability of cells to shorten causing them to contact in response to stimuli


Contraction" electrical stimuli sent to cardiac muscle, making it contract


recovery phase: muscle of the heart has already contracted and is returning to ready state.

conduction pathway

SA node (located in Upper rt. atrium)
AV node (located in bottom rt. atrium)
bundle of his
bundle branches: break off into the ventricle
pukinje fibers: go into the muscle walls of the ventricles and cause contraction.
ventricle muscle

lead placement

white: right arm, right upper chest
green: right lower abdomen
brown: center
black: left arm, left upper chest
red: left lower area

little box


15 large squares

3 sec

5 small squares


2 hash marks

6 seconds

isoelectric line

can have positive deflection (above baseline)
can have negative deflection (belowe baseline)
sometims it's imaginary

P wave

first posative deflection
depolarization of atria
round and smooth
1 - for every QRS

PR interval

begining of P wave to the QRS complex
time it takes for the electrical conduction to go through atria and av node

PR interval

normal 0.12 -.0.20

QRS interval

three waves
first a negative deflection, the posative, then negative again
ventricle depolarization

QRS interval

normal is less than 0.12 seconds

ST segment

end of S wave to the begining of T wave
May be flat (normal), elevated, or depressed
change indicates cardiac problems

T wave

follows ST segment
repolarization of the ventricle
can be above or below basline

QT interval

less than 0.44 is normal

QT interval

depolarization and repolarization
begining of QRS to end of the T wave

rythm regular/irregular

R-R interval
determines if its regular/ and irregular

8 steps for ECG interpretation

determine heart rate
determine heart rhythm
is there a P wave for each QRS
Determine PR interval
Determine the QRS interval
Is there a T wave after each QRS
determine QT interval
what is the client's response and VS

normal sinus rythm

heart rate between 60-100
always a P wave for each QRS
PR interval less than 0.12
Normal QT interval less than 0.44
rhythm regular

sinus bradycardia

heart rate is less than 60
everything else is the same

characteristics of asystole

no electrical activity in atria or ventricles
No P wave, No QRS, No T wave

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