46 terms

Science 7 digestive system Hamden Hall .


Terms in this set (...)

What is the Function of the epiglottis?
It is a flap like structure at the top of the throat that assists the body when swallowing by preventing food from entering your windpipe.
Explain the role of peristalsis?
Peristalsis are involuntary waves if muscle contraction that occur in the stomach, their purpose is to keep food traveling through the digestive system in one direction.
What is the function of the pancreas in the digestive process?
The pancreas is a gland organ that is responsible for producing enzymes that break down food into nutrients.
What is the function of the Villi?
The villi located inside the small intestine have the job of absorbing nutrient molecules.
What are the functions of the digestive system?
First, it breaks down food into molecules second the molecules are absorbed into the blood and carried throughout the body. Third wastes are eliminated from the body.
Distinguish between mechanical and chemical digestion
In mechanical digestion food is cut down into soft pieces that with the help of saliva are easy to swallow. In chemical digestion the food you have eaten breaks down into nutrients. For example if you are eating a carbohydrate rich food like bread it will break down into simple sugars.
Why must mechanical digestion start before chemical digestion?
Mechanical digestion is required before chemical digestion because large portions of food need to be ground so the chemicals in the stomach like HCL and pepsin can break down the food into nutrients.
What key chemicals do the mouth and stomach contain?
The key chemicals in the mouth are enzymes and amylase. While the key chemicals in the stomach are HCl and pepsin.
How do pepsin and hcl acid work together to digest food in the digestive system.
Pepsin works best in an acid environment. Without HCL pepsin couldn't function in the stomach. Also the acid kills bacteria that you swallow in your food.
What could happen if your stomach didn't produce enough mucus?
Your stomach would be damaged by acids with no mucus for protection.
What two digestive processes occur in the small intestine?
Chemical digestion and absorption are the processes that take place in the small intestine.
Explain how bile produced by the liver and enzymes produced in the pancreas function in the small intestine.
The pancreas produces enzymes that go into the small intestine to break up starches and fats.
What are symptoms of gluten allergy?
The villi is responsible for absorbing nutrient molecules if the villi were to be destroyed no nutrient molecules would be digested . This might result in constipation as well as weight loss and less growth.
What key nutrient is absorbed in the large intestine?
Water is the key nutrient that is absorbed in the large intestine.
What happens as food moves through the large intestine?
As materials move through the large intestine water is absorbed into the bloodstream. The remaining material is readied for elimination from the body.
How could diarrhea upset homeostasis.
Diarrhea could upset homeostasis because the body will get dehydrated when water leaves the body in the form of Diarrhea.
A unit of measurement for the amount of energy required to heat up on gram of water one degree celcius
In the body there are 5 nutrients that the body absorbed
carbs, proteins, fats, vitamins and minerals.
A nutrient composed of carbon oxygen and hydrogen that is a major source of energy
a long chain of carbohydrates (sugars).
Sygars are what help give the body energy some simple sugars are glucose and fructose.
Lipids or fat are used for storing calories and for cell membranes.
Fatty acid
a carboxylic acid consisting of a hydrocarbon chain and a terminal carboxyl group, especially any of those occurring as esters in fats and oils.
a colorless, odorless, syrupy, sweet liquid, C 3 H 8 O 3, usually obtained by the saponification of natural fats and oils: used for sweetening and preserving food, in the manufacture of cosmetics, perfumes, inks, and certain glues and cements, as a solvent and automobile antifreeze, and in medicine in suppositories and skin emollients.
A nutrient that contains nitrogen as well as carbon, hydrogen and oxygen they are needed for tissue growth and repair and play important parts in mechanical reactions.
Amino acid
Small units that are linked together chemical to form large protein molecules.
Molecules that act as helpers in a variety of chemical reactions
Nutrients that are needed in the body small amounts are not made by living things (like calcium and iron)
The fluid released when the mouth waters that plays an important role in both mechanical and chemical digestion.
The enzyme needed to break down carbs.
A key nutrient that only gets absorbed through the large intestine
a blood protein produced in response to and counteracting a specific antigen. Antibodies combine chemically with substances that the body recognizes as alien, such as bacteria, viruses, and foreign substances in the blood.
the part of the alimentary canal that connects the throat to the stomach; the gullet. In humans and other vertebrates it is a muscular tube lined with mucous membrane.
What is the purpose of stomach
The stomach secretes acid and enzymes that digest food. Ridges of muscle tissue called rugae line the stomach. The stomach muscles contract periodically, churning food to enhance digestion. The pyloric sphincter is a muscular valve that opens to allow food to pass from the stomach to the small intestine.
the chief digestive enzyme in the stomach, which breaks down proteins into polypeptides.
Hydrochloric acid is a clear, colorless, highly pungent solution of hydrogen chloride (HCl) in water. It is a highly corrosive, strong mineral acid with many industrial uses. Hydrochloric acid is found naturally in gastric acid.
Small intestine
The intestine where all nutrients with the exception of water are broken down.
The process pf breaking down food.
The process by which the nutrient molecules pass through the blood
Finger shaped organs located in the intestines that absorb nutrients from food by increasing the surface area for nutrient absorption.
The largest organ in the body it plays many roles in various body processes. The liver makes bile to help with digetsion.
A substance produced by the liver that breaks up fat particles, emulsification.
Gall bladder
The organ that stores bile after it is produced by the liver.
The part of the body where enzymes are produced located in the abdomen. It releases enzymes (amylase and lipase) into the small intestine.
Trace the path of food through the digetive tract
Food is chewed in the mouth where mechanical diegstion and some chemical digestion occur
Food is directed into the esophagus (food pipe). The epiglottis prevents food from entering the windpipe (trachea)
Food enters the stomach where more digetsion take place
Food is squeezed through the intestine by peristalsis
More digetsion occurs in the small intestine
Nutrients are absorbed through the villi and into the blood stream
Undigested food mater passes from the small intestine into the large intestine. Water is absorbed in the large intestine.
The remaining was is stores in the rectum and expelled out the anus.
Vitamin K
A vitamin that is found in green leafy vegetables that the body uses to help blood to clot.

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