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8th Grade Georgia Studies: ALL CONTENT

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After World War II, Georgia experienced tremendous growth & transformation in several ways: changes in agriculture; _____were no longer needed because of the AAA (Agricultural Adjustment Act), and more advanced tractors
tenant farmers
After World War II, Georgia experienced tremendous growth & transformation in several ways:
...
After World War II, Georgia experienced tremendous growth & transformation in several ways:
...
Agriculture became focused on _____ but _____ farms
fewer, larger
Farmers reduced the number of crops and turned to a new crop, _____
chicken
Chickens were ____ of farm output by 1970
1/3
Due to the change in agriculture, Thousands of displaced farmers had to ____________
find work elsewhere
After World War II, Georgia experienced tremendous growth & transformation in several ways: The Growth of Atlanta; after ww2, Atlanta became a _____
major city
In 1940, 65% of Georgians lived in rural areas. By 1976, 60% lived in or near cities, and Atlanta was the ______
largest
The Growth of Atlanta was thanks to ______ and ______
William B. Hartsfield, Ivan Allen Jr.
Hartsfield Was a champion and pioneer of advancements in ________throughout his career.
transportation
In 1925, Hartsfield helped purchase the racetrack that became Atlanta's first airport. It was named ____________ in 1971. Today it is THE BUSIEST IN THE WORLD!!!
Hartsfield International Airport
Hartsfield directed the building of Atlanta's _____ system
expressway
Hartsfield Was ________ from the 1930s to the 1960s
mayor of Atlanta
Allen Jr. became ____ after Hartsfield, and served from 1962 - 1970.
mayor
Allen built Atlanta's __________ , ___________
Memorial Arts cultural center, Civic Center,
Allen Brought in Atlanta's three __________: the Braves (baseball), the Hawks (basketball), & the Falcons (football).
major professional sports franchises
________ Served as governor of Georgia from 1943-1947
Ellis Arnall
Considered one of the most open-minded and _______ governors in Georgia history
effective
In a major surprise victory, the little known Arnall defeated the legendary _______ for Governor in 1943.
Eugene Talmadge
Unlike Talmadge, who often ruled Georgia like a dictator, Arnall promised a "__________" and made several important changes:
people's administration
______ was Arnall's top priority
education
Arnall ______________UGA's Accreditation
restored
Arnall abolished the _______ in Georgia
poll tax
Arnall Revised the State _______
constitution
Arnall paid off ______
state debt
Arnall was a champion of __________, ending many practices such as the chain gang.
prison reform
Georgia took a central role for change for ____________ in the US
African Americans
__________ was the father of the modern civil rights movement
Benjamin Mays
Mays was a Minister & educator; ______of Morehouse College
president
Mays was Heavily influenced by the nonviolent teachings of __________
Ghandi
Mays was a teacher and father to _____
MLK Jr.
MLK Jr. was born in ____GA
Atlanta
MLK Jr. Studied at _______ under Benjamin Mays
Morehouse College
Believed in nonviolent methods of protest:_____, _________, and ______
marches, demonstrations, boycotts
MLK Jr. Led a ________ that ended bus segregation in ________, AL.
bus boycott, Montgomery
MLK Jr. founded the ______________ (SCLC)
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
The courts ruled the ________________ in Georgia was an unconstitutional violation of the 14th Amendment
Democratic White Primary
The Three Governor's Controversy: Eugene Talmadge was elected for a fourth term as Governor, but ____________. Three men claimed the office.
died before taking office
One of the Governors was ___________ the son of Eugene Talmadge
Herman Talmadge
One of the Governors was _________ the current governor
Ellis Arnall
SNCC used sit-ins at lunch counters and later expanded to promote voter registration
...
One of the Governors was__________ the Lt. Governor
Melvin E. Thompson
The election was challenged in court, and the GA Supreme Court determined the _________ was the legal governor
ME Thompson
In the Brown vs. Education case, the NAACP won a landmark decision in the US Supreme Court, ruling that ______________.
segregated schools were unconstitutional
_______but_______ was now illegal
separate, equal
Many southern states protested the decision, including GA;In 1956, GA changed its state flag to include the _____________
Confederate battle flag
By the 19__s, the Civil Rights Movement was well underway and was gaining momentum
60
Students adopted King's strategy of nonviolent protest and formed the _____________ (SNCC)
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
One of the leaders of the SNCC was GA native and Morehouse College graduate, ________
Julian Bond
SNCC used ______ at lunch counters and later expanded to promote __________
sit-ins, voter registration
After schools were desegregated, GA refused to cooperate and threatened to ________ any schools that integrated
stop funding
GA's government formed a commission to ask Georgians how they felt, called _______________
the Sibley Commission
GA had mixed feeling on the Sibley Commission; they believed ___________________
Each school district should be able to decide for itself their own policy on integration
___ was ordered to be integrated
UGA
__________ and ___________ became the first 2 African American to enroll at UGA
Charlayne Hunter, Hamilton Holmes
A desegregation movement took place in ____, GA, involving the NAACP and SNCC
Albany
Thw Goal of the Albany Movement was to bring ____________ by ending all types of segregation in Albany
national attention to the Civil Rights movement
The NAACP and SNCC recruited ________ for the Albany Movement
MLK Jr.
The Albany Movement failed due to protesters being ____, and Albany's police chief used _______ to avoid negative publicity
peaceful tactics
250,000 people converged on _________ to demand equal rights for blacks.
Washington, D.C.
MLK delivered his famous I Had A Dream speech at the ____________
March on Washington
The March on Washington led the Senate to consider passing the __________, prohibiting discrimination in all public places and making it illegal to discriminate in _____on the basis of race or sex.
Civil Rights Act, employment
Georgia Senator _________ opposed the bill and organized a 75-day ______with 18 other Southern Democratic Senators. Finally, in June 1964, the Senate passed the bill by a vote of 73-27.
Richard B. Russell, filibuster
The Civil Rights Act was signed into law by U.S. President ___________, widely considered the Civil Rights President.
Lyndon B. Johnson
Johnson considered this his ____________ as United States President.
greatest achievement
_____________ became a GA celebrity in 1964 when he chose to close his Atlanta restaurant rather than comply with the Civil Rights Act.
Lester Maddox
In 1966, Maddox ran for Governor and was elected; He surprised many by _______________ than any previous Governor of GA.
hiring more blacks for government jobs
As Governor, Maddox supported ________ and increased spending for GA's _________. He also started "_____" where, once a month, average citizens could come talk to the Governor directly at the Governor's office.
prison reform, universities, People's Day
By 1973, Atlanta's population became an African-American ______.
majority
Maynard Jackson defeated the popular Mayor __________ (who was popular with blacks as well) to become the first African-American mayor of a _____________
Sam Massell, major American city
In the 1950s and 1960s, ________ organized voter registration and desegregation efforts in Albany and other southern cities.
Andrew Young
Young worked closely with ______ and the _____.
MLK, Jr., SCLC
In 1972, Young was elected to the U.S. _____________, the first black elected from GA since _________
House of Representatives, Reconstruction
In 1977, President _________ appointed Young to be the U.S. Ambassador to the _
Jimmy Carter, UN
In 1981, Young succeeded Maynard Jackson as____________
mayor of Atlanta
Americans turned to the leadership of ___to end the Great Depression and return America to economic prosperity
FDR
When elected, FDR promised to act immediately and to _____________ to end the hardships
use all of the government's resources
FDR's program to end the Great Depression was called the _____
New Deal
Four of FDR's New Deal programs had particularly significant impact on Georgia: The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC): this agency was created to__________ in projects aimed at ____________ (soil conservation, tree planting)
put young men to work, conserving the nation's natural resources
Four of FDR's New Deal programs had particularly significant impact on Georgia: The Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA): Because many agricultural products had been overproduced, the AAA was passed to pay farmers subsidies in order to_________, ______, and __________
not grow certain products, restrict products, drive prices up
Four of FDR's New Deal programs had particularly significant impact on Georgia: Rural Electrification: in 1935, only 3% of GAs farms had power. The Rural Electrification Administration offered __________________. By 1950, over 90% of Ga farms had electricity
low-interest loans to build power lines in rural areas
Four of FDR's New Deal programs had particularly significant impact on Georgia: Social Security: the Social Security Act Created ____for elderly, unemployed, and disabled people through contributions made by employees and their employers
insurance
_______ was FDR's greatest political rival in the state of GA
Eugene Talmadge
Eugene Talmadge served as GA Governor __ times
3
Talmadge fought for _____ right's and their issues
farmers'
Talmadge Resisted efforts to___________ to African-Americans
give more civil rights
Talmadge Believed in ______ and _________
low taxes, limited government
Talmadge was a Bitter opponent of _________________
increased government under the New Deal
Talmadge's opposition to the New Deal and to civil rights created __________________
negative publicity for the state
_____, E. Rivers was elected governor in 1936
Pro-New Deal
Even after losing the Governor election, Talmadge was still popular, and many considered him a potential candidate to _________
run for president against FDR
For decades, GAs Democratic Party was divided between __________ Democrats who supported the New Deal and the _______, pro-farmer Democrats of Georgia
big-government, small-government
The Treaty of Versailles, ending World War 1, was particularly harsh on Germany and many Germans came to _____________ for their hardships.
blame western Europe and America
The Great Depression spread, causing unemployment and low economic activity in many nations throughout the world, including ______, __, and ______.
Germany, Italy, Spain
Just as America turned to Roosevelt as a means to recover from the Depression, many European nations began to turn to _________ who promised to end the Depression.
fascist dictators
Germany's fascist dictator during WW2
Adolf Hitler
Italy's fascist dictator during WW2
Benito Mussolini
Japan's fascist dictator during WW2
Hideki Tojo
World War 2 began on September 1, 1939 with Nazi Germany' s surprise attack on _____. For the second time in the 20th Century, the world was divided into two hostile armed camps/alliances:
Poland
WW2 Axis Powers
Germany, Italy, Japan
WW2 Allies
Great Britain, France, Soviet Union
The ____powers quickly gained the upper hand in the war, conquering much of Europe and the Pacific...but the United States chose to _______ in the conflict.
Axis, remain neutral
Several events began to draw America into the war: Though the U.S. was neutral, Roosevelt wanted the democratic nations of Europe (mainly France and Great Britain) to ______
survive
In 1941, Congress passed the Lend-Lease Act, ____________ whose defense was critical to ______
lending supplies to any country, U.S. security
Lend-Lease was able to allow the U.S. to support the Allies _________________
without committing U.S. troops.
Tensions between the United States and the Empire of Japan increased because of Japanese______ of China, Thailand, and Indochina.
conquests
On December 7, 1941, the Empire of Japan launched a surprise attack on the U.S. naval base at_______, Hawaii.
Pearl Harbor
The Pearl Harbor attack _____________
crippled the U.S. Pacific fleet
The Attack on Pearl Harbor was the ____ greatest attack in US History
second
The following day of Pearl Harbor, December 8, 1941, the U.S. Congress __________
declared war on Japan.
On June 6, 1944, the U.S. ________________________
led the D-Day invasion of Nazi- occupied Europe.
By May 8, 1945, ________ and Nazi Germany _________
Hitler was dead, surrendered to the Allies.
By August 15, 1945, ______surrendered to the Allies after the United States dropped atomic bombs on _____and ______.
Japan, Hiroshima, Nagasaki
Prior to World War 2, Georgia was in a poor economic state. After America's entrance into the war, Georgia gained economic prosperity as __________
federal money poured into the state:
Bell Aircraft built the _______ plant in ______, GA to produce the B-29 bombers.
Bell Bomber, Marietta
Marietta became home to 28,000 ____________who built 663 B-29s during WW2.
Bell Aircraft employees
Bell Aircraft offered multiple job opportunities to _______and ______________
women, african-americans
________and _______, both deep-sea ports, provided ideal naval yards for the _______.
Savannah, Brunswick, construction of war ships.
GA became the home of the _____, a large, simple, square-hulled ship designed to _________ (grain, trucks, mail, etc.).
Liberty Ship, carry supplies to troops
Georgia became home to more __________
military training bases
Former GA Governor ________ was elected to the U.S. Senate for ______consecutive terms.
Richard Russell, seven
Russell became the Chairman of the powerful ________________ responsible for __________
Senate Armed Services Committee, overseeing the U.S. Armed Forces
Russell used his power and influence to ___________to GA
bring bases
Carl Vinson served in the U.S. House of Representatives for __ years.
50
Carl Vinson concentrated mostly on _______matters, and teamed with Sen. Russell to bring many of the ________
military, military installations to Georgia
The Holocaust describes the persecution and murder of 6 million Jews and 6 million other minorities by the Nazis. Hitler was motivated by anti- Semitism, and his goal was the destruction of all Jews and others ___________
inferior to the German master race
Jews and others were forced into ghettos, slave labor camps, and ultimately, extermination/death camps. In 1986, Gov. ________ established the ________
Joe Frank Harris, Georgia Commission on the Holocaust.
In 1988, the Georgia Commision on the Holocaust became a ___________ whose goal is to teach future generations about the dangers of prejudice, racial hatred, and ______
permanent state agency, genocide
FDR suffered from _____
polio
To treat his polio, Roosevelt often visited ________, GA, where the natural warm spring waters provided therapeutic pain relief for their pain.
Warm Springs
FDR ___________ after his presidential election in 1932.
built a home nearby
Many of Roosevelt's New Deal policies assisted farmers and youth, and the National Youth Administration (NYA) helped female and minority youth between 16-25 ________________
receive jobs so they could finish their education
Intense _______, a deep loyalty and devotion to one's own ethnic group/nationality, swept Europe
Nationalism
________ and ____________ led to Europe's clashes in Africa
Economic Rivalry, colonialism
____________ were formed to maintain balance of power, but it divided Europe into armed camps:
Military Alliances
The Central Powers
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire (modern day Turkey)
The Allies
Great Britain, France, and Russia
The spark of WWI came on with the assassination of ____________
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
WW1 was the greatest war in human history ______________
up until that point
WW1 was so large and disastrous that it was called "_____________"
the war to end all wars
The U.S. Was able to stay out of the war and maintain a policy of ________until_____
neutrality, 1917
President ________________ was elected by promising to keep America out of WW1
Woodrow Wilson
By 1917, German actions against the U.S. Changed America's mind: The Zimmerman Telegram: a secret telegram from Germany to Mexico was discoverd. In it, Germany promised to _________________ for Mexican support.
help Mexico regain California
By 1917, German actions against the U.S. Changed America's mind: Unrestricted Submarine Warfare: Germany enacted a policy stated that any ships found in the waters of hostile nations _________
would be attacked
By 1917, German actions against the U.S. Changed America's mind: The sinking of the _____: a German submarine sunk a British passenger ship
Lusitania
The U.S. entered the WW1 as an ally of _____and ______
France, Britain
Close to _______ Georgian served in the Armed Forces in WW1
100,000
In Georgia, Commercial ____________ to process canned peaches and sweet potatoes were open
canning plants
Meat packing plants were opened in _______, Atlanta, Augusta, Savannah
Moultrie
________ was open to hold German POWs
Fort Oglethorpe
was created for injured soldiers
Fort McPherson
WW1 was the first war to use ______, ______, _________, and______ warfare
tanks, airplanes, submarines, chemical
The death toll on both sides was an estimated_________________
10 million people
The ______ won WW1
Allies
The treaty ending the WW1, _____________, was extremely harsh on Germany
the Treaty of Versailles
Agricultural experts had urged farmers to _____, rather than continue their heavy dependence on ______.
diversify, cotton
_______ is a destructive insect that laid its eggs in cotton
Boll Weevil
The Boll Weevil swept into Georgia in ____________
dust clouds
By the early 1920s, the Boll Weevil had destroyed nearly _______ of Georgia's cotton crops
2/3
In the 1920s a severe _______ struck Georgia in and the entire Southeast
drought
The drought in the ____s was the worst drought in Georgia's history
1920
farm machinery producers began to stop producing _______, and began to turn to new farm technology, such as the motorized ______
Old equipment, tractor
The cost of new farm equipment was too much for ________
farmers to pay
Many farmers began ____________
migrating to the city to find work
Troubled times in Ga throughout the 1920s were followed by an economic disaster on a national scale, with the _______, lasting from 1929 to the late 1930s
Great Depression
The Great Depression was the Longest period of high unemployment and _____________ in modern history
low economic activity
The stock market crash of 1929 triggered the _______
collapse of banks
By 1932,_______ of all Americans were unemployed, and incomes had dropped __%
1/4, 20
One factor of the Great Depression was the ___________ cycle
unemployment
Within the unemployment cycle, Industries created _____________
more products than people could use
Within the unemployment cycle, Less spending power meant people were not able to __________
purchase as many products
Within the unemployment cycle, Wages were ______or workers were _______
lowered, laid off
Within the unemployment cycle, Citizens had _________
less spending power
One factor of the Great Depression was: workers, being paid_______, bought on ____ they couldn't repay
low wages, credit
One factor of the Great Depression was: The U.S. ___________ after WW1, but placed ________ on European goods, making it difficult to _______
Loaned money to struggling European nations, high tariffs, repay the loans
People ____________, using ____________ when the stock-market crashed
over-speculated on stocks, borrowed money they couldn't repay
Though Georgia's economy had been devastated by the Civil War, the state recovered in the 1800s, largely because of these three men. Who were they, and what were they called?
Joseph E. Brown, Alfred H. Colquitt, John B. Gordon/ Bourbon Redeemers
All of the Bourbon Redeemers were these 3 things
wealthy, politicians, businessmen
This Bourbon Redeemer was the governor of GA during the Civil War
Joseph E. Brown
This Bourbon Redeemer became a successful textile and railroad spectator
Alfred H. Colquitt
This Bourbon Redeemer worked hard to undermine the North's Reconstruction efforts
John B. Gordon
All of the Bourbon redeemers held this position`
US Sentate
These 2 Bourbon Redeemers were GA Governors
Brown, Colquitt
Thought the 14th and 15th Amendments made African-Americans fully equal, participating citizens, discrimination continued through a series of "______"
loopholes
The Bourbon Redeemers argued that GA's future was not in ______, but in _____ and _______
agriculture, business, industry
The Bourbon Redeemers found an ally in the influential editor of Atlanta's newspaper, ___________, named _______
The Atlanta Constitution, Henry Grady
Grady urged Georgians to ignore the past and create a New South built on _______
industry
Henry Grady was the __________
voice of the New South
In order to spotlight and shed attention on Georgia's growing textile industry, Atlanta hosted an industrial fair called the __________________ (ICE)
International Cotton Exposition
The ICE attracted ___________
investors
these people resented the new emphasis on business and industry
farmers
The dramatic drop in ________ and the loss of the South's agricultural ________ made life difficult for farmers
cotton prices, labor force
To protect and promote the interests, a movement called the _______________ was formed
Farmer's Alliance
The Farmer's Alliance created Cooperative stores (Co-ops) that were created to ______________
buy agricultural goods at discounts
The Farmer's Alliance encouraged politicians to fight for ___________ (RFD)
Rural Free Delivery
Support of the Farmer's Alliance formed their own political party to challenge the ___________
Democrats who had betrayed them
This party fought specifically for farmers
The People's Party/Populous Party
The leader of the Populous Party in Georgia was a lawyer named _________
Tom Watson
In 1890, Watson __________
won election to Congress
As a member of the House of Rep., Watson finally won passage of the ___
RFD
Democrats began paying more attention to _________
farmer's needs
By the 1890s, the Populist party has ______________; several members left the party and rejoined the ________(including Watson)
lost its momentum, Democrats
Eventually the Democratic Party has reestablished _____________over the South
firm dominance
Tom Watson was elected to the _________ now as a Democrat
US Senate
In 1922, Watson ______
died in office
The Governor shocked the nation by appointing a woman, ______________, to replace Watson until a special election
Rebecca Latimer Felton
Though she held office for only __ hours, Felton was the _______ in American history
24, first female senator
Reconstruction provoked a great deal of ______and ethnic hatred throughout the South
racism
Others, like ________, tried to get laws passed taking away the ________________
Tom Watson, right to vote for blacks
In 1906, ___________ was elected Governor after promising to _______________________________
Hoke Smith, pass a law taking the right to vote away from the blacks.
The election of 1906 caused ___________ to run extremely high.
racial tension
On September 22, Atlanta newspapers published articles alleging that _____________________
several black men had assaulted white women.
That night (Sept. 22), a group of whites attacked attacked a __________ on a bicycle, igniting a race riot that lasted _ days.
black messenger, 4
In the _____________, the official coroner reported that 10 African Americans and 2 whites were killed
Atlanta Race Riot,
City officials called for an end to the violence (ATL Race Riot), saying the riots hurt ___________ as a thriving, progressive city.
Atlanta's reputation
this is hatred towards Jews, and it had also become a cause of conflict in the early 1900s
antisemitism
In what case was a 13 y/o factory worker named ________ murdered while at work in Atlanta?
Leo Frank Case, Mary Phagan
The factory ________, a Jewish man named _____, was accused of the murder of Phagon
superintendent, Leo Frank
Despite conflicting testimony and clear _________, Frank was _____and sentenced to death.
falsified evidence, convicted
Two years after his conviction, Frank was _________________
kidnapped from his jail cell and hanged by a mob
Soon after Reconstruction, many states began passing ____________, segregating schools, hotels, restaurants, restrooms, etc.
Jim Crow laws
In 1892, _______ (who was partially African American) was arrested for riding in the _____________
Homer Plessy, whites only section of a railroad car.
Plessy sued in court arguing that his ____________ rights were violated.
14th amendment
The U.S Supreme Court, Plessy Vs. Ferguson, said that ____________, as long as facilities were _________
segregation was legal, separate but equal
Thought the 14th and 15th Amendments made African-Americans fully equal, participating citizens, discrimination continued through a series of "______"
loopholes
this loophole required citizens to pay a tax before voting
Poll Tax
this loophole required people to prove that they could read before being able to vote
Literacy Tests
this loophole was created since most african-americans in the South were sharecroppers, registration was often scheduled during planting season, this is an example of _________________
Inconvenient voter registration
this loophole was created since political parties are private, not public, and ____________ does not apply. Blacks, therefore, were not permitted to vote in the ________.
Constitutional law, Democratic primary
An election within a party to determine a party's candidate.
Primary
By the 1900s, African Americans were ________(rights taken away)
disenfranchised
African American leaders differed in their _______________
responses to discrimination.
Booker T. Washington believed that the way for blacks to advance was not through integration, but through hard ______and ______. He became a national figure with a speech at the Atlanta ICE in 1895 in which he endorsed hard work and segregation as the path to _______.
work, education, equality
BTW founded the _____________ to train teachers of farmers and tradesmen.
Tuskegee Institute
W.E.B. Du Bois believed that African Americans should ___________ for full civil, social, and political rights
speak out constantly
While a professor at Atlanta University, WEB founded the ______, made to promote _________ to Jim Crow Disenfranchisement
NAACP, legal challenges
The Atlanta Race Riot of 1906 land discredited the "________" approach of Washington
coexistence
After 1906, most prominent African Americans tended to follow the _________model of _____ and the ______
confrontational, Du Bois, NAACP
This person made multiple achievements in the field of education
John Hope
John Hope served as the first black president of _______ in Atlanta
Morehouse College
John Hope served as the _______ president of __________
founding, Atlanta University
While President of AU, he established the first graduate studies program specifically for _____________
African Americans.
the wife of John Pope
Lugenia Burns Hope
Lugenia Burns Hope founded the _____________, provided poor blacks in Atlanta with a _________, and created boys and girls clubs, ______________
Neighborhood Union, health clinic, job training classes
This man became a Barber after being a slave
Alonzo Herndon
Herndon became so successful, that he used his earnings to make several ________ purchases.
real estate
Herndon Bought a failing mutual aid association in 1905 and Turned it into __________, a multi-million dollar life insurance company for blacks.
Atlanta Life Insurance
By the time Herndon died, he was Atlanta's ____________
wealthiest African American
Local Governments provide services and protections to people who live in particular cities or ______
counties
________ Build and maintain roads, control licences for cars and trucks, run Georgia's welfare programs, and have court systems
county governments
there are ___ counties in Georgia
159
Georgia has approximately 600 cities and towns, also called _______-.
municipalities
Municipalities have ______(similar to constitutions) that form and structure the municipality's government, and define the municipality's ______and ___.
charters, boundaries, powers
Municipal governments ____officials and provide _____for cities and towns. Services include police and fire protection, garbage collection and disposal, street and road construction, public housing, public transportation, libraries, electric or gas utility services, and street lighting.
elect, services
Forms of Municipal Government: Has a weak mayor. Mayor is elected by the voters, but has no special executive powers (no power to veto, choose committee members, or overriding say in the budget).
Weak Mayor-Council
Forms of Municipal Government: Has a powerful mayor. Mayor is elected by voters in the city and can veto legislation passed by the city council. The mayor can also choose people to run the city's services and runs the city's budget.
Strong Mayor-Council
Forms of Municipal Government: The city has a City Manager (head of the Executive Branch). The City Manager decides who is in charge of city services and runs the city's budget. In this form, the mayor is a member of the legislative branch like the rest of the city council.
Council-Manager
What are created by city and county governments to accomplish a specific task?
Special Purpose Governments
Which Special Purpose Government Create jobs and increase business in specific counties?
Development Authorities
What Maintains and develops land for parks and recreation areas in counties?
Recreation and Parks Authorities
All governments require money. The money that governments bring in is called ________.
revenue
Required payment to a government by a person or business. are called __________, and they are the largest source of revenue for Georgia.
Taxes
4 Main Types of Taxes?
Income, Corporate, Sales, Property
Which Tax is on money earned by people or businesses?
Income
Which Tax is based on money a company makes?
Corporate
Which Tax is on retail goods and services
Sales
Which Tax is on property such as land, homes, and cars?
Property
Georgia's Court System is divided into two levels, _______courts and __ courts:
appellate, trial
these courts handle appeals from lower courts
Appellate Courts
this is the highest court in the state; has seven members, six Justices and a Chief Justice; no jury; this is a type of what court?
Supreme Court of Georgia;Appellate
this court has twelve judges working in three man panels to hear appeals; no jury; this is a type of what court?
Court of Appeals;Appelate
these courts are lower courts with the original right, power, or authority to interpret and apply the law
trial courts
These courts can hear almost any civil or criminal case; consists of a judge and a jury
Superior Courts
these courts hold jurisdiction over misdemeanor violations and civil cases; consists of judge and jury
State Courts
these courts have jurisdiction over delinquent children under 17 years and deprived children under 18; no jury
Juvenile Courts
these courts handle administrative matters such as wills; may have a jury
Probate Courts
these courts handle small civil claims, bad checks, arrest warrants, etc.; no jury
Magistrate Courts
Most judges in Georgia are _______
elected
____court judges may be elected or appointed by local legislatures
Magistrate
______court judges are appointed by superior court judges
juvenile
________law deals with actions that harm people or society;(e.g., DUI, murder, armed robbery, etc.)
Criminal
_______law deals with private disputes (e.g., divorce, property ownership, contracts, personal injuries, etc.)
Civil
Civil cases are introduced by_______ seeking ________
private parties, monetary damages
In civil cases, the defendant may be ____________
forced to testify
In a civil case, the plaintiff only needs to show guilt of the other party by a" _______________"
preponderance of the evidence
Criminal cases are introduced by ________________ (fine, imprisonment, or death)
the government seeking punishment
In ______cases, the defendant has the right to defend himself or not to testify under the __________
criminal, 5th Amendment
In a criminal case, the ________ must prove the defendant guilty "______________"
prosecutor, beyond a reasonable doubt
The _________ is different in in the way the justice system is applied to adults and youth. The emphasis of adult court is on _____________, while the emphasis in juvenile court is on __________.
purpose, punishment, rehabilitation
The _________ is different in the way the justice system is applied to adults and youth. Juvenile Courts have jurisdiction (the right to rule) over cases involving children under __ years old, or children under 18 who do not have a ______________
jurisdiction, 17, parent or guardian.
The _________ is different in in the way the justice system is applied to adults and youth. Juveniles are "_______" and adults are "_______"; adults are found "_______" and juveniles are found "_______"; etc.
terminology, taken into custody, arrested, guilty, delinquent
The _________ is different in in the way the justice system is applied to adults and youth.The adult and juvenile justice processes are _______.
process, different
If charged with a crime and taken into custody, juveniles have rights similar to adults: The right to ___________when questioned about an alleged crime.
remain silent
If charged with a crime and taken into custody, juveniles have rights similar to adults: The right to have an ____________ when questioned by the police
attorney present
If charged with a crime and taken into custody, juveniles have rights similar to adults: The right to be _______________ at trial
represented by an attorney
Not all juvenile misconduct is considered ________
delinquent
____behavior is behavior that is disorderly or disobedient, but not necessarily criminal committed by a juvenile (e.g., truancy, underage drinking, curfew violations, running away from home, etc.).
unruly
________behavior is behavior in which a criminal act has been committed by a juvenile (e.g., theft or damage of property; illegal weapon possession; sale of illegal drugs, etc.).
Delinquent
Unruly behavior and delinquent behavior carry different ________
penalties
Unruly behavior may result in commitment to juvenile detention centers for up to______ (but may be extended by another two years if the court deems necessary).
two years
Delinquent behavior may result in commitment to juvenile detention centers for periods of _________ months (but not to extend past the 21st birthday).
12 to 60
There are _______crimes which, if committed by a juvenile between 13-17 years old, may result in trial as an ______
7, adult
If found guilty of one of the " __________," they will face imprisonment for a minimum of __years. The delinquent will remain in juvenile detention until the age of __ and then be transferred to ___ or face the death penalty.
seven deadly sins,10, 17, Prison
GA's first constitution was a_______ government called the ________________
provisional, Rules and Regulations.
GA's first permanent constitution was the _____________, a form of government that weekend the _____ branch and strengthened the ________
Constitution of 1777, executive, legislature
GA's current constitution was adopted in ____, and was intended to be a shorter, more _____constitution for the state.
1983, modern
The Georgia Constitution of 1983: Article 1 (_________): States ______ guaranteed to the citizens by the constitution (life, liberty, property, etc.)
Bill of Rights, specific rights
The Georgia Constitution of 1983: Article 2 (Voting and Elections): Sets qualifications and rules for _______
elections
The Georgia Constitution of 1983:Article 3 (Legislative Branch): Describes the structure of the___________ (the state senate and house of representatives)
General Assembly
The Georgia Constitution of 1983: Article 4 (Constitutional Boards and Commissions): Sets up ____________ such as the Public Service Commission, State Transportation Board, and the Board of Pardons and Paroles
government bodies
The Georgia Constitution of 1983: Article 5 (Executive Branch): Establishes _____ and powers of _________ and ____________
offices, Governor, Lieutenant Governor
The Georgia Constitution of 1983: Article 6 (Judicial Branch): Establishes state _________
court system
The Georgia Constitution of 1983: Article 7 (Taxation and Finance): Authorizes power to____, and purposes and methods of _____
tax, taxation
The Georgia Constitution of 1983: Article 8 (Education): Establishes __________ system supported by ____, and the ______________ to oversee it
, public education, taxes, Board of Education
Article 9 (Counties and Municipal Corporations): Describes powers and structure of ______ governments
county
Article 10 (Amendments to the Constitution): Describes the process for ____________
amending the constitution
Article 11: _________________
Miscellaneous Provisions
Legislative Branch: the __________ (Senate and House) makes the law
General Assembly
Executive Branch: (the _____, ________, _______, _______, and _________ ) enforces the law
Governor, Lieutenant Governor, Secretary of State, Attorney General, and State Treasurer
Judicial Branch: the state ______, __________, _________,_________, and __________ interprets the law
Supreme Court, Court of Appeals, Circuit Courts, and Municipal Courts
Each branch can check the power of the others, ensuring no branch becomes too powerful is called _________________
Checks and Balances
Basic Rights of all citizens: _____, ____, and _______
Right to free speech, Right to worship freely, Right to Trial by Jury
Basic Responsibilities of all citizens
Take care of one's self, Respect the rights of others, Obey rules and laws
Georgia Voting Requirements: You must be a __citizen
US
Georgia Voting Requirements: You must be a legal resident of ____and the ____you wish to vote
Georgia, county
Georgia Voting Requirements: You must be ___
18
Georgia Voting Requirements: You may not be a _______, or if they are declared, by a____, to be _________
convicted felon, judge, mentally incompetent
Elections in Georgia are run by the ________________
Secretary of State's Office
In Georgia, _________ deadlines are usually 30 days before an election
Voter registration
Presidential elections, according to the _________must be held every 4 years on the _____________
US Constitution, first Tuesday of November
Polling places are open from _ a.m. to _ p.m.
7, 7
Voters standing in line at 7 p.m. must be __________
allowed to vote
Employers are required to give ______________
employees up to 2 hours to vote
If a voter can't vote on election day: ________Ballots: Voting by _________
Absentee, mail before an election
If a voter can't vote on election day: ____Voting: Voting the _____ to the election
Advance, week prior
In Georgia: Qualifications for Office in Bicameral Legislature (State Senate and House): You must be a US Citizen, a citizen of Georgia for at least __ years, Legal residents in their ____for at least ______
2, district, county, one year
In Georgia: Qualifications for Office in Bicameral Legislature (State Senate and House): Senators must be ___years old, Representatives must be ___
25, 21
In Georgia: House has ___ members & Senate has ___members
180, 56
Duties of Office: Senators and Reps are elected _ year terms
2
Duties of Office:All elections for the legislature are held ______
at the same time
Duties of Office: All members of the legislature are elected
___________
in their local districts
Duties of Office:Legislative sessions start on the _______________, and last for __ days
first Monday in January, 40
Duties of Office: Members ____ and _________________
make laws, represent the views of their constituents
_____ is united by common views, and helps get candidates elected
political party
The President of the Senate is the____________(the only person in government who is a member of the Executive and Legislative branch)
Lieutenant Governor
Powers of Lt. Governor include ____, _____, and ____
The ability to cast a vote if there is a tie, the power to make a committee assignment, the power to name committee chairmen
The State Constitution states that the House of Representatives has the right to _______________
choose all of its leaders
The leader of the State House of Representatives is the ________________
speaker of the house
The Speaker of the House is usually elected by ________________________
members of the majority political party
Another State House official is the ________
Speaker Pro Tempore
In the State Senate and House, Most lawmaking work takes place in _________
committees
Both houses use ________to _________ before they are sent to the house floors for formal debate and votes
committees, study bills
Committee chairmen are highly _______positions, appointed by the ________
coveted, leaders of each house
The state's chief executive is the _________
Governor
Qualifications for Governor: You must be ______ years old
30
Qualifications for Governor: You must have been a US Citizen for ____ years
15
Qualifications for Governor: You must have been a citizen of Georgia for ___ years
6
The Governor is Elected by a _____ vote of all eligible Georgia voters
popular
The Governor serves _ year terms
4
The Governor may propose ______ or _____
new programs, laws
The Governor may call _______________ or ______
special legislative meetings, veto bills
The Governor may ______ and _______ the state budget
propose, direct
The Governor may appoint _______________
members of state boards
the second highest member of the Executive Branch in Georgia is the _________________
Lieutenant Governor
When the office of governor _________, the Lt. Governor takes over until the next election
becomes vacant
The qualifications for the Lt. Governor for office are ____________
identical to the governor's
The Governor and Lt. Governor do not _______________. They can even be from ________
run on the same ticket, 2 different parties
The Lt. Governor is The only officer who is a member of ____________
2 branches of government
Members of the Executive Branch: __________, _________, _______, __________, ____________
Governor, Lt. Governor, Attorney General, Secretary of State, State School Superintendent, Agriculture Commissioner, Insurance Commissioner, Labor Commissioner
_________serves as the state's attorney in court
attorney general
___________________handles all administrative duties and regulates the sale of corporate stocks and bonds
secretary of state
_____________heads the Department of Education
State School Superintendent
_________overseer and regulates the state's agriculture industry
agriculture commissioner
___________regulates insurance businesses and protects consumers
insurance commissioner
________investigates labor complaints
labor commissioner
The time period after the Civil War is called __________
Reconstruction
The south was ______and ______reconstructed
socially, physically
During Reconstruction, Southern states ______into the United States
reintegrated
_______leaders disagreed on how to treat the South, and there were 2 major plans for reconstruction
Northern
__________Reconstruction: President Lincoln wanted to restore the South on _____ terms. He had only __ requirements for states to be readmitted to the Union
Presidential, friendly, 3
Under the Presidential Reconstruction plan, ____ of the state's voters had to take an ___________________
1/10th, oath to obey the US Constitution
Under the Presidential Reconstruction plan, Each southern states had to create a __________
new state government
Each southern state had to agree to _________, under the Presidential Reconstruction Plan
abolish slavery
_______________Reconstruction: _______in Congress disagreed with Lincoln and wanted to _____ the South
Congressional, Republicans, punish
Congress passed the harsh __________ in 1864, requiring that Southerners _______ the Confederacy
Wade-Davis Bill, denounce
President Lincoln vetoed the __________Plan
Congressional
Just days after the Civil War ended, President Lincoln was ___________
assasinated
The new President, ______________, a ______, was committed to ______'s plan of treating the south with friendship
Andrew Johnson, Southerner,Lincoln
Northern Republicans used ____________as proof that the South_____________
Lincoln's assassination, needed to be punished
In 1866, ___________ won enough seats in Congress to override any of President Johnson's _____
Radical Republicans, vetoes
In ______, Congress ________ President Johnson
1868, impeached
Congress passed __________ to the US Constitution from 1865-1870:
3 amendments
13th Amendment (____): ___________
1865, Abolished slavery
14th Amendment (____): _____________
1866, Gave citizenship to freed slaves,
15th Amendment (____):____________
1870, Guarenteed all citizens the right to vote, reguardless of race or previous condition of servitude
In ____, all of the Southern states, except ______, refused to ratify the____ Amendment.
Tennessee, 14th
In response to the South's refusal to ratfiy the 14th Amendment, Congress place the South (except Tennessee) under ______
Martial Law
Under martial law, Georgia was placed under the command of the much hated _________
General John Pope
Georgia had the ____________ of African-Americans, most of whom were uneducated and unemployed
highest population
To help newly freed blacks __________, Congress created the __________ in 1865:
adjust to life as free people, Freedmen's Bureau
The Freedmen's Bureau gave______, ______, ______, and ______ to freed slaves
food, clothing, medicine, and other supplies
The Freedmen's Bureau Provided ___________ to freed slaves
legal services
The Freedmen's Bureau helped ___________ for African Americans
establish schools
To make a living, former slaves often chose to___________________ as __________or ___________________
remain with their former masters, sharecroppers, tenant farmers
farmers would rent a portion of land to farm; used their own animals, supplies, and equipment, and normally pain 1/4th of theism harvest for rent
Tenant Farmers
owned nothing, and had to pay a larger portion of their harvest in exchange for land and borrowed supplies
Sharecroppers
In ___, Georgia adopted a new state constitution
1867
In the 1868 election for Georgia's General Assembly, African-Americans were _______________
elected for the first time
Henry McNeal Turner was an educated _______
minister
Henry McNeal Turner was the first _____________________
black chaplain in the history of the US Army
Henry McNeal Turner worked for the ______
Freedman's Bureau
Henry McNeal Turner was one of the founder of the _____ party in Georgia
Republican
Henry McNeal Turner was elected to Georgia's __________ in ____
General Assembly, 1868
Soon after the election of 1868, Georgia's Democrats succeeded in ___________________
expelling the black members from office.
Hotel and business owners in the state capital, Milledgeville, refused to serve the ____________________________
black General Assembly members
In response to Milledgeville's actions, General ___________, the military commander in Georgia, moved the capital to _____
John Pope, Atlanta
The ____________forced Georgia's General Assembly to accept the black members
Federal Government
The Ku Klux Klan was Founded in 1865 by former Confederate General________________
Nathan Bedford Forrest
The Ku Klux Klan was a means for Southerners to _____________________
resist the North's reconstruction efforts
The Ku Klux Klan used ______, _______, _______, and ____________ to intimidate blacks, republicans, members of the Freedmen's Bureau, etc.
care tactics, terror methods, violence, and murder
The KKK Helped white _________ regain control of the South during Reconstruction
Democrats
In _____, Georgia became the ____Southern state to be readmitted to the United States
1870, last
Those opposing slavery, mostly northerners, joined the new ____________ and supported ___________
Republican Party, Abraham Lincoln,
Northern Democrats supported _________________
Stephen Douglas
Southern Democrats supported US Vice President, ____________
John C. Breckinridge
Many states of the South threatened to ____the Union if ________ was elected president
secede, Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln was elected the 16th US president without ____________
winning a single southern state
_____________ was the first state to secede from the United States
South Carolina
By February of ____, the seven states of the _________ had seceded and formed a new nation, the __________________
1861, Deep South, Confederate States of America
In Georgia, governor _________ wanted to secede immediately
Joseph Brown
Moderates in the state, led by Senator _______________ (senator from Georgia) urged caution, arguing that Lincoln was not the enemy and _________ would occur if Georgia succeeded
Alexander H. Stephens, economic ruin
Georgie voted 166-130 in ____of secession
favor
Alexander Stephens ___________to Georgia, even though they didn't listen to his opinion about seceding
remained loyal
_________________ was elected Vice President of the Confederate States of America
Alexander Stephens
After the Confederacy was formed, the U.S. Continued to occupy a small fort, __________, located in the middle of South Carolina's ______harbor. The Confederacy demanded that the U.S. Troops ____
Fort Sumter, Charleston, leave
In 1861, _____ forces in South Carolina bombarded Fort Sumter, forcing the U.S. Troops to_______.
Confederate, surrender
After the attack on _______, ____ states of the ____ south seceded
Fort Sumter, 4, upper
Four slave states chose not to secede. These states-____, _____, _____, and _______-are called _______
Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, Delaware, Border States
At the start of the Civil War both the North and the South had ___________
certain advantages.
The North's advantages were ______ (of material nature):
tangible (manpower, material, money, etc.)
The South's advantages were _____(of an immaterial nature):
intangible (better generals, fighting on their own soil, fighting a defensive war.)
The Northern strategy was called the _______, because it involved a _____of the ________ in order to strangle the south to death by ____________
Anaconda Plan, blockade , Southern coast, keeping supplies out
In April 1862, Union forces captured____________, the fort protecting ______. This put Georgia's most important port city under blockade for the rest of the war
Fort Pulaski, Savannah
On September 17, 1862, the North and South fought the first major battle on ____soil at _______in _________, Maryland
Northern, Antietam Creek, Sharpsburg
______was the bloodiest day in US History with over 26,000 casualties(more than all previous American wars combined).
Antietam
On September 22, 1862, President Lincoln issued the ________________, declaring that all slaves in rebellious states were free
Emancipation Proclamation
Because Lincoln did not control rebellious states, no slaves were actually freed from the ____________.
Emancipation Proclamation
The Emancipation Proclamation ensured that ____and _____would not help the _____.
England, France, South
By the middle of ____, brilliant _____generals had brought the ____to the brink of defeat.
1863, Southern, North
General _________invaded the North in July 1863.
Robert E. Lee
At _______, PA, the Northern army overwhelmed Lee's army.
Gettysburg
The Southern Army never recovered from the defeat at ___________.
Gettysburg
For the ______ of the war, Georgia was free from major battles.
first half
From September 19-20, 1963, 58,000 Union troops fought 66,000 Confederates at the battle of _______, Georgia's ______battle.
Chickamauga, largest
At the battle of Chickamauga, the South _____the North and forced them to retreat to ______, TN.
defeated, Chattanooga
Despite the victory at Chickamauga, the South was___________
near defeat
From May to September 1864, Northern forces under General ____________ fought a series of battles forcing the Southern army back to ________ , the center of the South's industry and transportation.
William T. Sherman, Atlanta
The day after burning _____, Sherman started his destructive "___________".
Atlanta, March to the Sea
In November 1864, Northern forces captured Atlanta and burnt the city to the ground. Sherman's orders were for the Union army to _____________________ in order to ____________________ left in Georgia.
destroy everything they came across, crush any fighting spirit
Just days after destroying Atlanta, Sherman's troops sacked Georgia's capital city, _____________
Milledgeville
Just before Christmas 1864, Sherman entered the city of ____. He offered the city to President Lincoln as a ________
Savannah, Christmas Gift
Within 4 months of the March to the Sea, April 1865, the Confederate States of America _______. The Civil War was over.
surrendered
One of the most tragic aspects of the war was the notorious prisoner of war camp in _________, GA:
Andersonville
Barely able to supply their troops, the South was unable to supply the ____________
prison camps
Prisoners suffered from _______, ____________, _________, ______, and _________
overcrowding, malnutrition, starvation, disease, and lack of shelter.
Of the 45,000 prisoners of war sent to Andersonville, 13,000 (over _____) died.
1/4
Andersonville Prison had the highest ________ of any Civil War prison camp.
death rate
Though he constantly begged the Confederate government to improve the conditions of the camp, ______ the ___________, was hanged for war crimes.
Captain Henry Wirz, Prison Commandant
The Civil war left the South in ruins. Many of the South's _______ had been destroyed
major cities
____% of the male population in the South had been killed
25
the southern economy was annihilated, and didn't recover for ______
decades
As the US grew throughout the 1800s, differences developed between the _____-of the North and South
cultures
By the mid-1800s, the southern agricultural economy depended on _____.
cotton
By the 1800s, slavery was the most ______issue
controversial
The North became increasingly opposed to slavery...Northern businessmen, who ______, could not compete with the unpaid black labor in the south
hired workers
The North became increasingly opposed to slavery...______, a group of extremists, felt slavery was evil and wanted it to be outlawed immediately
abolitionists
The South became increasingly distrustful of the North...The south felt that the industrial north was using slavery as an excuse to interfere in their ________
way of life
The South became increasingly distrustful of the North...Southerners though abolitionists were encouraging ______________
blacks to rebel
As the South's dependence on cotton grew, so did its dependence on _____
slavery
By the 1800s, ____was the most controversial issue
slavery
Northern businessmen, who__________, could not compete with the unpaid black labor in the south
hired workers
___________, a group of extremists, felt slavery was evil and wanted it to be outlawed immediately
Abolitionists
The South became increasingly ____________of the North:
distrustful
The south felt that the industrial north was using slavery as an excuse to ______________
interfere in their way of life`
Southerners though abolitionists were _____________________
encouraging blacks to rebel
Northerners and Southerners began to have different opinions on _________and ___________
regionalism, nationalism
Most Northerners supported ________
nationalism
_____, is when the interests of the nation were more important than the interests of the state
nationalism
Most Southerners supported ______
regionalism
the interests of the state or region were more important
regionalism
In the 1800s, as more factories were being built in the North, Northerners wanted the south to ____________
buy northern goods
Southerners preferred to buy_____________ because they wear often cheaper
European Goods
To force the_____________, Congress would often put tariffs on European imports
south to buy from the north
Southerners hated _____
tariffs
In 1828, Congress passed a tariff that was so high, that it was called the _______________
Tariff of Abominations
In response to the "Tariff of Abominations", South Carolina passed the_______________, declaring that the 1828 tariff would not apply to S.C
Ordinance of Nullification
President Andrew Jackson, a Southerner, ordered SC to change the Ordinance of Nullification or face _______
invasion
In response to Andrew Jackson's warning, SC ___________ and congress lowered the 1828______
withdrew their nullification, tariff
By 1820, the North's population growth caused it to gain control of the ______________
House of Representatives
There were an equal number of slave states and free states, so the North and South had an equal number of ________, before the Missouri Compromise
senators
The South believed in order to maintain any say in Congress, they had to have at least an equal ____________ as the North
number of states
In 1820, Missouri apples to the US as a ____state
slave
The North refused to allow Missouri to become a slave state, because it would give the South a ______________
majority in the Senate
Senator ___________from Kentucky helped create the ________, and ________ Compromises
Henry Clay, Missouri, Compromise of 1850
With the Missouri Compromise, Missouri was admitted to the US as a _____ state
slave
With the Missouri Compromise, _____was created as a free state
Maine
Congress agreed that the in the future, slavery wouldn't be allowed in states north of the __°__' line of latitude
36, 30
Controversy started again when the US beat Mexico in the ______________in 1848
Mexican-American War
Before the Compromise of 1850, The North wanted to prevent slavery spreading into lands won from _____, even though most of it was below the 36°30' line.
Mexico
In the Compromise of 1850, California was admitted to the Union as a ___state, but other lands would be _________
free. open to slavery
In the Compromise of 1850, The slave trade was abolished in the___________, Washington DC
US Capitol
In the Compromise of 1850, A very strict ____________was passed, punishing those helping escaped slaves and forcing the North to return escaped slaves
Fugitive Slave Act
Many Georgians thought the Compromise of 1850 violated ___________, and the Georgia assembly made the ___________, and stated Georgia would only agree to the compromise if the following occurred:
Southern Rights, Georgia Platform
The Georgia Platform stated that Georgia would only agree to the Compromise of 1850 if the North stopped trying to ____________
ban slavery in new territory
the Georgia Platform stated that Georgia would only agree to the Compromise of 1850 if The North strictly enforced the _________
Fugitive Slave Act
Controversy exploded again in 1854 when Congress passed the ___________
Kansas-Nebraska Act
The Kansas-Nebraska Act allowed the citizens of Kansas and Nebraska to ____________________
choose if they wanted to have slaves
When the Kansas-Nebraska Act was passed, A war broke out between ___and ____slavery citizens in _____
pro, anti, Kansas
After the Kansas War, Kansas became known as ______
Bleeding Kansas
In 1857, the Supreme Court destroyed all of the compromises of the previous 30 years with the ___________
Dred Scott Decision
During the Dred Scott Case, A slave named Dred Scott, sued in court for his freedom, arguing he had been_____________________, a free state
free when he and his master had lived in Illinois
In the Dred Scott Case, the Supreme Court ruled that Slaves were property, not citizens, and ___________
could not sue in court
In the Dred Scott Case, the Supreme Court ruled that Congress couldn't ___________, therefore all the states were slave states
regulate property
The _____ was outraged at the Dred Scott Decision
North
Those opposing slavery, mostly northerners, joined the new __________Party and supported ____________
Republican, Abraham Lincoln
Northern Democrats supported ________
Stephen Douglas
Southern Democ supported US Vice President ____________________
John C. Breckinridge
Many states of the South threatened to ___________ if Abraham Lincoln was elected president
secede the Union
Abraham Lincoln was elected the 16th US president without winning _________
a single southern state
___________ was the first state to secede from the United States
South Carolina
By February of ____, the seven states of the ______ had seceded and formed a new nation, the Confederate States of America
1861 ,Deep South
Georgia was divided over the question of ________
succession
Governor_______________ wanted to secede immediately
Joseph Brown
Moderates in the state, led by Sentator _____________ (senator from Georgia) urged caution, arguing that Lincoln was not the enemy and _____________ would occur if Georgia succeeded
Alexander H. Stephens, economic ruin
Georgie voted 166-130 ____________
in favor of secession
Alexander Stephens remained loyal to Georgia, and was elected _________________ of the Confederate States of America
Vice President
The U.S. Continued to occupy a small fort, Fort ____, located in the middle of South Carolina's _____harbor. The Confederacy demanded that the U.S. Troops leave.
Sumter, Charleston
In 1861, Confederate forces in South Carolina bombarded Fort Sumter, forcing the U.S. Troops to _____.
surrender
After the attack on_____________ 4 states of the ___________ seceded
Fort Sumter, upper south
Four other ____ states chose not to secede. These states-______________-are called ____________
slave, Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, Delaware, Border States
In Georgia, most Native Americans belonged to one of two great nations...
Creek (Muscogee), Cherokee
The Creek and Cherokee were part of a group of five Native American nations that were considered ______
civilized
Why were the Creek and Cherokee considered civilized? They had adopted _____
white culture
Why were the Creek and Cherokee considered civilized? They went to ______
american schools
Why were the Creek and Cherokee considered civilized? Were mostly _______
Christians
During the Revolutionary War, many of the Creek sided with _____against the ______, and many Georgians distrusted them and wanted them removed
Britain, Americans
One of the Creek Leaders who resisted efforts to force the Creek further west was ______
Alexander McGillivray
During the Revolution, McGillivray served as a ________
British Colonel
McGillavray led the struggle to gain US respect for ____________
Creek boundaries
In 1790, McGillavry finally agreed to cede all Creek lands in GA east of the _____________
Oconee River
In Exchange for agreeing to move Creek lands , the US agreed to officially _____and ______the Creek Nation, and to recognize ______ as the Creek leader
recognize, defend, McGillavry
in 1802, Georgia agreed to give up the ____lands, if the US would agree to remove the Creek and Cherokee from Georgia
Yazoo
Chief ___________ signed the___________ in 1825, giving up all remaining Creek lands in GA
William McIntosh, Treaty of Indian Springs
Angered by ________'s betrayl, many Creek denounced him. he was attacked and assasinated by a war party of 200 Creek indians
McIntosh
By 1825, the remaining Creeks in Georgia had been relocated across the ________
Mississippi River
Although the Creek were gone by 1827, the Cherokee were still flourishing in ______and _____, having created a very advanced society
Tennessee, NW GA
The Cherokee had independent _______and organized states
government
The Cherokee had a capital city, located at __________, near Calhoun, GA
New Echota
The Cherokee had a ___________, based on the US (_______)
constitution
One of the most famous Cherokee, ________ (aka ______), created the Cherokee writing system, allowing the Cheorkee to read and write their own language
George Guess, Sequoyah
Using Sequoyah's syllabry, the Cherokee published their own newspaper, the ____________
Cherokee Phoenix
In 1791, the US signed a treaty with the Cherokee Nation, guaranteeing that it would _____and _____ the Independent Cherokee Nation
respect, protect
The Cherokee and the Americans were able to live peacefully side by side, until 1828, when gold was discovered in ______, causing the first US Gold Rush
Dahlonega
In 1828, the General Assembly of GA, declared that GA state laws were now_______________
in effect in Cherokee land
In 1830, President__________ signed the _________, requiring all Indians east of the ______River to move on reservations west of it
Andrew Jackson, Indian Removal Act, Mississippi
The Cherokee Nation decided to fight the Indian Removal Act, not with weapons, but in ____
court
After gold was discovered in 1828, Governor Gilmer wanted all Cherokee to______________ to the state of Georgia
swear allegiances
Several Cherokee missionaries, including Rev. __________, refused to take the oath and encouraged the Cherokee not to take the oath as well
Samuel Worcester
Worcester was arrested, after he refused to take the oath, and sent to prison. In response, he _____ to the US Supreme Court
appealed
In the case Worcester vs. Georgia, Chief _____ argued that Governor ____and GA General Assembly violated the 1791 ______ with the Cherokee Nation
John Ross, Gilmer,US Treaty
The US Supreme Court, led by Chief Justice _____, agreed with the Cherokee on the oath matter and decided that the Ga laws were not valid
John Marshall
President Andrew Jackson ignored the Supreme Court and ordered the _______________ to be enforced
Indian Removal Act
In 1838, 14000 Cherokee were forced to march west to the Indian Territory (modern-day Oklahoma). This event was called the ________
Trail of Tears
After the American Revolution, Georgia began to turn its attention to _____and _____, and expansion into its vast western frontier
growth, development
Georgia was a pioneer in public ________
education
In 1784, Georgia's legislature, the General Assembly, set aside 40,000 acres of land for ____
UGA
The man selected to write the charter for UGA was _________
Abraham Baldwin
UGA's charter was approved in ____, and Abraham Baldwin was named the first school president
1785
The original land was sold, and the school was built in 1801, on land donated by then Gov. __________
John Milledge
The first college in UGA was ________
Franklin College
UGA was the first public, ________ university in American history
land-grant
As Georgia's population began to shift more to the _____, Georgia's capital cities moved( ______ )as well
west
Throughout its history, Georgia has had ___capital cities
5
Acronym for the order of Georgia's Capitals
SALMA
Georgia's first capital city; (1732-1784)
Savannah
Georgia's second capital city; (1785-1795)
Augusta
Georgia's third capital city;(1796-1806)
Louisville
Georgia's fourth capital city; (1806-1867)
Milledgeville
Georgia's fifth capital city; (1868-present)
Atlanta
Louisville was named after _________ of France, an American ally during the Revolution
King Louis XVI
Milledgeville was named after Gov. _______, who donated the land for UGA
John Milledge
Prior to the Revolution, Georgians had been members of the official__________ (the Anglican Church)
Church of England
______taught that the King of England was to lead of the Church, and demanded that its members be loyal to the king during the Revolution
Anglicism
During and after the war, Anglican priests identified with the _____and therefore, left or were forced to leave Georgia by Whigs
Tories
Anglicans who did not support the King left the Church and England and joined the _______Church
Methodist
Who led the Methodist Church?
John Wesley and George Whitefield
Churches were ______or ______ during the Revolution
damaged, destroyed
_______, who was the Governor in 1783, strongly promoting the rebuilding of churches
Lyman Hall
The greatest growth occurred among the ____and the _____
baptists, methodists
One of the first African-American churches in the U.S. history, the__________________, was established in Savannah in 1788
First Colored Baptist Church
To the present day, the 2 largest christian denominations in Georgia are ____and ______.
baptist, methodist
As Georgia grew, the state began looking for ways to attract settlers to the state, since the growth of the state depended upon the growth of the ______
population
Until 1803, Georgia distributed land according to the __________
Headright System
Under the Headright System: All heads of household was entitled to 200 acres, plus 50 acres per family member (including slaves), up to a limit of _____acres
1000
The Headright System caused what?
massive immigration to Georgia
The thought of gaining free land resulted in a large amount of _______
corruption
Under the Headright System: Dishonest officials accepted _____in exchange for land grants larger than the 1000 acre limit
bribes
The first major scandal in American History was ______
The Yazoo Land Fraud of 1795
During the Yazoo Land Fraud: Certain land speculators badly wanted to buy Georgia's vast western territory along the _____and _____Rivers (called the Yazoo Territory)
Mississippi, Yazoo
During the Yazoo Land Fraud: Four speculation companies bribed the General Assembly to sell them ___________ for extremely low prices, so that they could sell it to others for profit
huge tracts of land
During the Yazoo Land Fraud: Citizens were furious, and copies of the Yazoo Act were burned on the steps of the capital in ______
Louisville
The Yazoo Act was repealed in ____
1796
Many of those involved in the __________fled the state
Yazoo Land Fraud
Because of the countless lawsuits from buyers who had been cheated, Georgia agreed to give the Yazoo Territory to the _______ in 1802, if the they paid for the damages
U.S. Government
The Yazoo Territory became the states of________ and ______
Alabama, Mississippi
W/out the Yazoo territory, Georgia could no longer give away as much free land as it had under the _______________
Headright System
Land won in the ______varied in size from 500 to 50 acres
lottery
All free white men living in Georgia for one year were given one chance;_____ or _____were given two chances
widows, veterans
If you won any land in the Land Lotteries, you were called _______
Fortunate Drawers
GA had ____major lotteries from 1805-1832 that attracted settlers
7
By the mid 1800's, GA was becoming and _____ power for multiple reasons
economic
In Colonial GA, growing cotton was not very______ or _________because it was to separate the seed from the cotton by hand
practical, profitable
In 1793, while visiting a plantation in Savannah, ______________invented the cotton gin to quickly and easily clean cotton of it seeds.
Eli Whitney
Almost overnight, cotton became the ______ crop in the south, and Georgia was the nation's largest producer
dominant
Unfortunately, more cotton meant more plantations, and more plantations meant more ______
slavery
The growth of cotton meant there was a need for a better means of ________cotton from Georgia's interior to the port city of Savannah
transporting
Transportation by ________ , ________, and ____________ was slow and expensive
wagon, flatboat, and steamboat
In 1834, workers began building the Georgia Railroad, which was to extend from _____ to ______
Athens, Augusta
By 1860, there were over _____ miles of railroad in GA
1200
Georgia's first constitution
Constitution of 1777
the function of government that makes the law
Legislative
the function of government that enforces or executes the law
Executive
the function of government that interprets of explains the law
Judicial
The 3 basic functions must be kept ____ powerful
equally
The fundamental laws of the government must be written down as a ____________in order to create a written record of the rights of the people and the limits of the government's power
constitution
The leaders of Georgia did not want the ________function to be too powerful.
executive
In the Georgia constitution of 1777, there were to be 3 seperate _____ of government
branches
In the Georgia constitution of 1777, most power was given to a unicameral legislature called the ___________
General Assembly
In the Georgia constitution of 1777, The General Assembly elected the Governor (head of __________ branch) and the Governor's Executive Council
executive
In the Georgia constitution of 1777, The governor served a ___________ term
one-year
In the Georgia constitution of 1777, A _____________ court (judicial) was created for each county
superior
In the Georgia constitution of 1777, Basic rights (_____, ______, _______) were recognized
religion, press, trial by jury
The strengths of the Georgia constitution of 1777 were, _____________________,_____________, and ______________
it was written down, separated the 3 basic functions, protected basic rights
In the Georgia Constitution of 1777, the 3 functions were not equally powerful, instead the _____ branch was the most powerful
legislative
A weakness of the Georgia Constitution of 1777, the governor was in office for _________________
too short of a time to be effective
A weakness of the Georgia Constitution of 1777, the legislature elected and chose the ________ council
governor's
Since most Georgians had been Tories, the Constitution of 1777 was written by ___________, and was never sent to the people for ratification (approval).
Whigs
Just as Georgia began to create its own state govt., the 2nd continental congress drafted the ______________ as the first Constitution of a new national government
Articles of Confederation
Just like when writing the Constitution of 1777, the 2nd continental congress wanted to avoid a powerful _______branch when writing the Articles of Confederation
executive
The First national constitution, the Articles of Confederation, went into effect on March 1, _____
1781
The Articles of Conferation created a very weak ______ government, and the 13 states were considered separate, independent nations
national
Under the Articles of Confederation, the national government was a loose _______, alliance, or friendship (similar to the United Nations).
confederacy
The strengths of the Articles of Confederation were _______, and _______
written down, Set up a representative form of government in which the representatives were elected by the citizens.
The Articles of Confederation only created a _______ branch
legislative
Under the Articles of Confederation, Congress could not levy ____, leaving the country unable to pay debts or soldier
taxes
Under the Articles of Confederation, Congress couldn't regulate trade between the _____, allowing trade wars to arise between the various states
states
Under the Articles of Confederation, Congress could make laws, but had no executive ability to ____ them
enforce
All decisions required approval of ____% of the states with the Constitution of 1777
100
All states received only one vote in congress, regardless of the state's _____
size
Congress could not raise an _______without the state's permission, leaving the nation defenseless
army
Despite the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation, many states (especially ___ states like Rhode Island) did not want to change fearing a powerful central government
small
Delegates from all the states, except Rhode Island, met in Philadelphia, PA in May, 1787 to discuss _____the articles of confederation
revising
Georgia appointed 6 delegates to attend the Constitutional Convention, only 4 came, and 2 stayed until the end, they were _____, and _______
Abraham Baldwin, William Few
The Constitutional Convention lasted the entire ____of 1787
summer
Much of the time was spent in bitter _____ and disagreement among the delegates
argument
The most important and controversial debate concerned the issue of _________, at the Constitutional Covention
representation
Large states (NY, VA,MA) believed that the _____ the population, the more votes the state should receive
greater
Small states (Georgia, new hampshire) believed each state was an independent nation and should be treated equally and given an _____number of votes
equal
Abraham Baldwin helped draft a compromise creating a _____(2-house) legislature. This agreement is called the _________________
bicameral, Great Compromise
On September 17, ____, the delegates signed the final draft of the new United States Constitution.
1787
On January 2, 1788, Georgia became the _____ state to ratify the U.S. Constitution
4th
The U.S. Constitution established a ______system in which the national government shared power with the state governments.
federal
The U.S. Constitution gave what 5 powers to the national government?
declaring war, coining money, regulating trade, establishing post offices, making treaties with foreign nations
The U.S. Constitution gave what 3 powers to the state government?`
building schools, issuing drivers licenses, establishing marriage laws
Under the U.S. Constitution what did both the national and state government have the power to do?
taxes, building roads, establishing courts, making laws
The U.S. Constitution established a national government with three separate, _____branches.
equal
What is the Legislative Branch made up of(US Constitution)?
Congress-the House of Representatives and Senate
What is the Executive Branch made up of(US Constitution)?
president, vice president, and Cabinet
What is the Judicial Branch made up of (US Constitution)?
The U.S. Supreme Court-Chief Justices and 8 associate justices, and the Federal Court System
The U.S. Constitution established a system of _________ to ensure that no single branch became too powerful.
checks and balances
To protect the freedoms of the people, the__________were added to guarantee basic rights.
Bill of Rights
Most citizens of Georgia were called __________(also called loyalists, because they were loyal to king george iii. Many agreed to fight in the British Armies
Tories
A smaller group of colonists became the _______or Patriots; they wanted independence from Great Britain
Whigs, Patriots
Most Georgia loyalists lived near the _____________, in our around Savannah. They were wealthy and benefited from their trade relationship with England.
coast
Most Georgia Patriots lived in the ____________________. They tended to rely on themselves and did not want to be bothered by government.
backcountry
The first major fighting took place in the South took place in________________ when the British defeated the Patriots at Savannah.
December 1778
By January 1779, the British had also captured __________, georgia's only other major city besides Savannah.
Augusta
Sir James Wright was restored as Royal Governor of Georgia and efforts were made to hunt down Georgia colonists who had supported the _______.
Whigs
The fighting appeared to be lost for the Georgia Patriots until the _____________
Battle of Kettle Creek
The British commander asked for additional troops to capture the rest of the Georgia colony in what Battle?
Battle of Kettle Creek
A group of 700 British soldiers and loyalists marched from ____________ and camped on the small stream called Kettle Creek.
North Carolina
A group of Patriots from the backcountry, led by _______________, marched to meet the British at Kettle Creek in an early morning surprise attack in February 1779.
Elijah Clarke
Elijah Clarke's victory at Battle of Kettle Creek forced the British to withdraw from _______
Augusta
The Battle of Kettle Creek was considered the most important Revolutionary War battle fought in Georgia because it prevented the British from gaining control of the ________________.
backcountry
In the fall of 1779, American and ________ forces prepared to attack and regain control of Savannah from the British.
French
They attack, on October 9, lasted only_________, and he American were beaten back, losing thousands of soldiers.
90 Minutes
The attack on Savannah was the ________bloodiest battle of the Revolutionary War.
second
The most famous casualty of the battle (Siege of Savannah) was a Polish soldier who had come to fight for the colonists, ____________. Both Pulaski County and Fort Pulaski are named in his honor.
Casimir Pulaski
After the failed attack on Savannah, the _______ and ______continued to fight each other.
Patriots, loyalists
By 1781, the tide turned against the ______, and the Patriots recaptured Augusta.
British
In 1782, he British were forced to withdraw from the city of ________.
Savannah
In 1781, _____________ defeated the largest British Army in America, commanded by______________, at the battle of _______.
General George Washington, Lord Cornwallis,Yorktown
Great Britain and America signed the Treat of Paris of 1783, recognizing the independence of the thirteen American _______.
states
The official end of the war?
Yorktown
the Treaty of Paris of 1783 once again gave _______possession of ________
Spain and Florida
The hero of the Battle of Kettle
Creek ?
Elijah Clarke
While the Patriots were struggling to keep their hopes alive, ________ led small groups through the Carolina frontier to attack the British with guerilla tactics.
Elijah Clarke
In 1781, ________returned to Georgia from Carolina and helped the Patriots regain control of Augusta
Elijah Clarke
A slave who joined the Whigs
Austin Dabney
The only black Whig soldier at the Battle of Kettle Creek
Austin Dabney
Granted his freedom by the government of Georgia in 1786.
Austin Dabney
Seriously wounded at Kettle Creek, _____ was cared for by Giles Harris, a white friend
Austin Dabney
Chose to work for Giles Harris's family for the rest of his life
Austin Dabney
Six-Foot tall, red head known as the Wauhatchie War Woman
Nancy Hart
According to the legend, served as a Whig spy at Kettle Creek
Nancy Hart
Killed possibly six invading british soldiers after getting them drunk on wine when they demand she cook for them.
Nancy Hart
Today, _____County is the only county in Georgia named after a woman.
Hart
In 1912, railroad workers who were working near the Hart homestead came across the graves of 6 skeletons. What could this mean?
The legend is true about her killing the soldiers.
A merchant and plantation owner who became an important early Georgia statesman
Button Gwinnett
Chairman of the committee that drafted Georgia's first permanent constitution in 1777
Button Gwinnett
Served as governor for a few months in 1777 after the sudden death of Gov. Archibald Bulloch.
Button Gwinnett
Killed in a gun duel with Whig General Lachlan McIntosh
Button Gwinnett
A minister and doctor from New England
Lyman Hall
Elected governor in 1783; worked hard to rebuild the economy and restore relations with Tories and Indians after the war.
Lyman Hall
A successful lawyer and important early GA statesman
George Walton
An active politician after the war, he served as U.S. Congressman, GA Chief Justice, GA Governor and U.S. senator.
George Walton
Until _____, independence was unthinkable
1763
Great Britain was the ___________ on earth, and the American colonists were proud to be an important part of the british Empire
most powerful nation
Another Name for The French and Indian War
Seven Years War
With Spain no longer a threat, _____ emerged as the greatest rival of Britain.
France
In ______, France and Britain had built huge empires in N. America and were competing to be the greatest world power
In 1756
War broke out over the disputed land in the _____________
Ohio River Valley
The allies of France in the French and Indian War: ___________, ____________
Algonquin Indians and Spain
The fight _______ Georgia
Never Reached
By _____, England had won the war
1763
Britain forced France to sign the ____________, because they lost the war
Treaty of Paris of 1763
France gave up all of its colonies in ______
N. America
Spain was forced to give La Florida to Britain, but was granted most of France's land ______________
west of the Mississippi River
The war removed the _____________threat from La Florida
Spanish
The war changed Georgia's Western border from the Pacific Ocean to the _____________
Mississippi River
The British were going to have to defend the colonies from hostile indians west of the Appalachians who had been allies of the French or ____________________
had been promised land by the British after the war.
The war was extremely expensive, and Great Britain was left with a tremendous _____________
national debt
The new King of England, King George III, wanted to avoid conflict with the Indians west of the Appalachians, and wanted to ___________________
build up colonial settlements east of the Appalachian.
Even though many colonists had hoped to move West after the French were removed, King George III prohibited any colonist from moving beyond the ____________________
Proclamation Line
Many of the colonists felt cheated and were angry because of the _______. For the first time, Americans began openly expressing their displeasure with great britain
Proclamation of 1763
King George III felt that the French and Indian War had been fought to protect the American colonies. He believed therefore the colonists should pay taxes to help pay off the war ________
debt
The American colonists had no _____________ in the the British Legislature, Parliament. Because they of this, they believed that they could not be legally taxed.
representation
In 1765, Britain passed the _______________, a tax on paper good that required colonists to buy government stamps for nearly all paper goods.
Stamp Act
The Stamp Act caused the first major widespread ______against British Rule.
protests
By the early ________, The American Colonists began to demonstrate a greater willingness to rebel.
1770s
In 1770, a mob of angry colonists in Boston taunted
and threatened to attack a small unit of British soldiers.
The soldiers fired into the mob and killed five colonists. The event was called the _____________.
Boston Massacre.
In December 1773, several British Colonists protested a tax on tea by dumping nearly 350 chest of tea (thousands of $) into Boston Harbor. This event was called the ________
Boston Tea Party
The ______________ was passed by King George III in order to punish the colonists of Massachusetts
Coercive Acts
The Coercive acts were called the __________ by the colonists.
Intolerable Acts
The Intolerable Acts included: ________, that closed the port of Boston to trade
Boston Port Act
The Intolerable Act: _______________stated that trials for British officials would be moved out of Massachusetts to another colony or to England
The Impartial Administration of Justice Act
The Intolerable Act: ______________ took away the colony's charter and prohibited town meetings
The Massachusetts Government Act
The Intolerable Act: ____________ required colonists to provide housing for British soldiers without compensation
Quartering Act
Many of the colonies felt great sympathy for ______________and felt it was time to act.
Massachusetts
Representatives from the colonies met in Philadelphia in 1774 to come up with a response to the Intolerable Acts. This meeting was the ______________
First Continental Congress
The only colony not to participate in the first continental congress was _________
Georgia
On April 19, 1775, fighting broke out between British soldiers and the colonists at the____________________
Battles of Lexington and Concord
The Americans, fearing that the British planned on using force to oppress the colonies, agreed to meet again to consider declaring independence. the _________________ met in Philadelphia in 1775.
Second Continental Congress
Even Georgia was growing angry. Georgia's only newspaper, _________ had become highly critical of King George III.
The Georgia Gazette,
A group opposing England, the "_____________," established a chapter at Tondee's Tavern in Savannah to protest British policies.
Sons of Liberty
On ___________, the Second Continental Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence.
July 4, 1776
Written mainly by __________, the document was a list of abuses by King George III against the colonists.
Thomas Jefferson
The _____________ declared that the colonies were free from British rule and were now 13 separate, independent countries
Declaration of Independence
Representatives from all 13 colonies signed the Declaration. Georgia's signers were Representatives from all 13 colonies signed the Declaration.
Georgia's signers were ___________, ___________, & _____________
Button Gwinnett, Lyman Hall, and
George Walton.
Anti-British forces managed to take control of Savannah and______________ to leave.
force representatives of the British government
Even the popular and respected Royal Governor, ______________, was arrested, but he managed to escape to a British ship off the coast of Georgia.
Sir James Wright
In _____ Georgia's Trustees gave their charter back to King George II. Georgia became a royal colony.
1752
Without the strict rules of the trustees, Georgia began to __________. Savannah, the capital of Colonial Georgia, became a busy port city and the residents became very wealthy.
quickly prosper
Georgians could now own _____and ______
land, slaves
Large ______________were built along fertile rivers raising: rice, silk, indigo, corn, peas, wheat, rye, and tobacco
plantations
Wealthy _______became important exporters of goods
merchants
the backbone of the economy would become ________________
slave labor
The Georgia economy was strongly supported by _______
trade
Wealthy merchants and craftsmen in Savannah traded with ________________________
England, other colonies and the Indians
The king appointed a royal ______ to represent him in Georgia. This person only answered only to the king.
Governor
Georgia's first Royal Governor
Captain John Reynolds
Royal Governor from 1754-1756
Captain John Reynolds
A formal ______________, Reynolds was stern and tried to rule Georgia as a captain commands in a ship
naval officer
Extremely _________________, Reynolds was replaced after 3 years
unpopular and confrontational
the royal governor from 1757-1760
Henry Ellis
An explore prior to becoming a governor
Henry Ellis
Henry Ellis taught colonists about ________, ____________, and _______
self-government, budgets, and defense.
Old and sickly, Ellis had to resign his office due to the extreme heat and his______
poor health
royal governor from 1760-1776
James Wright
The most popular and successful of all of the governors
Wright
Built good relations with the colonial legislature, negotiated treaties with the __________, and opened millions of acres for_______
indians, settlement
Under_______'s rule Georgia prospered and grew faster than any other colony.
Wright's
Georgia was allowed allowed self-government. Its legislature ( body of representatives that make the colony's laws) was called theGeorgia was allowed allowed self-government. Its legislature ( body of representatives that make the colony's laws) was called the ______________
House of Assembly
The royal governor was still the colony's _______ and was the final authority on all matters
executive
Georgia was the colony that was the________ to the King
most loyal
Why was georgia the most loyal to the king? Georgia was the _______colony, founded in 1732
youngest
Under royal control, Georgia prospered and became ____________
extremely wealthy
Georgia's Royal Governor, Sir James Wright, was extrmely _________with the colonists
popular
The father of the Georgia colony was______
Sir James
Prior to Sir James Oglethorpe, England, desperate for a
________to protect wealthy South Carolina from the Spanish in La Florida, attempted to establish a colony in Georgia.
buffer
•In 1721, _________________ was built at the mouth of Georgia's Altamaha River, to provide protection from Spanish attack.
Fort King George
____________________caused the Fort to be abandoned in 1727.
Sickness, climate, and insects
Sir James Oglethorpe, a member of the English
government, was committed to the idea of prison reform.
He believed that many good, but "poor unfortunates," were imprisoned because of the _______________
corruption in society
Oglethorpe believed that man was basically good, but that society was corrupt and capable of corrupting good men. He devised a plan to send the_______&_____________ to North America where they could prosper in the service of England.
Poor and Unfortunate
In 1732, ___________________ granted Oglethorpe and 20 fellow trustees a charter giving them the right to establish the new colony, called "Georgia," and govern it for 20 years
King George II
According to the _________, the colony of Georgia was to extend from the Savannah River in the north to the St. Mary's River in the South, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean.
charter
According to the charter, the colony of Georgia was to serve__________, __________, & ______________
Charity, Economics, and Defense
Georgia would be a place for the poor and
unfortunate to live and prosper, is which purpose of the Charter?
charity
Georgia would be a colony that would grow
crops to be sent back to England for profit, is which purpose of the charter?
Economics
Georgia would be a buffer colony to protect South
Carolina against the Spanish, hostile Natives, or pirates.
Defense
Because the colony of Georgia was to be a place where people could escape the corruptions of society, those who applied to come had to follow certain prohibitions, including: ________, __________, & ____________
No rum, No slaves, No Lawyers, No land ownership
In November 1732, James Oglethorpe and the first 114
Georgia colonists sailed from England on the ship ________
Anne
After months at sea, the Anne reached North America.
Oglethorpe selected a high bluff overlooking the Savannah River as his potential settlement. The bluff was called _____________ after the local Creek Indian tribe the lived there.
Yamacraw Bluff
Fortunately, Oglethorpe met _________________, a woman who was half-English and half-Yamacraw Indian. She agreed to serve as Oglethorpe's interpreter, and she remained with him until 1743
Mary Musgrove
Because of Musgrove, Oglethorpe was able to establish good relations with the Yamacraw and other tribes of the ___________. The Creek would remain friends of the English until the Revolutionary War.
Creek nation
The Yamacraw Chief,________________ , became a close, personal friend of Oglethorpe. He agreed to grant them Yamacraw bluff as the site of their new settlement, called Savannah
Tomochichi
Tomochichi traveled to England, led his people in converting to _______________ , and taught his people to speak and read English. English became the official language of the Creek Nation.
Christianity
On February 12, 1733 - "Georgia Day" - the Georgia colonists arrived at Yamacraw Bluff to begin building Savannah. Surveyed and designed by Noble Jones, Savannah became the first ________________ in American history
planned city
Georgia' s was supposed to be a "________________."
Unfortunately, things did not go as planned
worker's paradise
Though the colony was supposed to __________________________, all of Georgia's first 114 settlers were accomplished craftsmen, artisans, or businessmen
serve debtors and other unfortunates
The __________climate proved unbearable for many of the first colonists
hot, humid
Of the twenty-one trustees, only ______________ ever visited Georgia. The others remained in London, and were unable to understand the settlers' needs
James Oglethorpe
The __________Period (1733-1752) was an extremely difficult time in Georgia's history
Trustee
Unlike prosperous _______________, Georgia was unable to grow large amounts of crops to benefit England. Aside from small crops of rice and silk, most farmers struggled in Georgia
South Carolina
Georgia's settlers lived under the constant threat of attack from _________
Spain
Many settlers became unhappy with Georgia's policies,
particularly the rules against slavery and land ownership. They were so troublesome to the Trustees that they were called the __________ (because they were discontent with life in Georgia)
malcontents
One of the few groups to prosper in Georgia was group of ______________from the German town of Salzburg. Searching for religious freedom, the Salzburgers were invited to settle in Georgia.
Lutherans
The Salzburgers founded the town of ________, 25 miles north of Savannah. There, they focused on producing silk and raising cattle (or burger).
Ebenezer
A deeply religious and hard-working community, the Salzburgers enjoyed great __________in Georgia.
Many still live in New Ebenezer today.
success
Another ethnic group, the_____________, were recruited to come to Georgia. Renowned for the fighting ability, they were recruited in order to help defend against the threats from hostile Indians and from Spain.
Highland Scots
Despite the positive contributions of the Salzburgers and the Highland Scots, the Trustee Period was still a _______time.
troubled
In the 1730s, a British merchant ship was attacked by a Spanish war ship. The English were accused of piracy and the Captain, ________________, had his ear cut off by the Spanish.
Robert Jenkins
This event (Jenkin's Ear), among several others, ignited a war between ________ and __________.
England and Spain
Because Georgia was on the border of Spanish La Florida, James Oglethorpe began to fortify Georgia in case of a Spanish _______
invasion
Just as Oglethorpe expected, a Spanish force invaded ____________________ Island in July 1742. With a much smaller army, Oglethorpe was able to defeat the
Spanish attack at the Battle of Bloody Marsh
St. Simons
Because of the English victory at the _________________________, Spain gave up all claims to Georgia.
Battle of Bloody Marsh
Though there were small border clashes over the next few years, any serious Spanish threat was __________ ended.
permanently
After his victory over Spain, Oglethorpe returned to England. He was married in 1744, and he ___________________ to Georgia.
never returned
Without Oglethorpe's leadership, the Georgia colony began to fail miserably. Giving in to the malcontents, the Trustees relaxed their rules on ______ and ________.
slavery, rum
Frustrated with their failed experiment at creating a "worker's paradise," the Trustees gave the colony back to _____________ in 1752, one year before the charter was supposed to expire.
King George II
The European Kingdoms were in competition for ________&_______
Wealth, and Military Might
The 4 Powerful kingdom were...
Portugal, Spain, France, and England
In the 1200s, what was Marco Polo's Route from Europe to India called?
Silk Road
By the 1400s the Silk Road was controlled by Muslims and infested with bandits, and was ________ for europeans
no longer safe
Who was the first to reach India by sea, and also the ruler of portugal?
Prince Henry, "The Navigator" of Portugal
Prince Henry believed the quickest was to India, was to sail around ______
Africa
Spanish rulers, King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella, were desperate to find a water route to India. To help Spain, they hired ____________
Christopher Columbus
Columbus believed the quickest was to India was to sail ____
west
On Oct. 12, 1492, Columbus landed on the island of _________ , off the coast of north america , believing he found India
San Salvador
Columbus made ________ trips to North America, still believing it was India
4
The rulers of Spain realized after Columbus died that he had found The New World, and sent ______ to conquer and claim the land
conquistadors
Pope Alexander VI created the _______________ to divide the unexplored world between Spain and Portugal
Line of Demarcation
The Line of Demarcation ensured ______ would be the dominant world power
Spain
The Spanish claimed all the land in the new world and named it __________, and believed it was an island
La Florida
In 1540, __________, with 600 conquistadors, was the first to explore the interior of Georgia
Hernando Desoto
Leaving the Spanish base in the Caribbean, he marched across the entire southeast in search of gold, became the first to look upon the _________________
Mississippi River
In 1564, the Spanish moved their colonial capital to _____________, on the Florida Peninsula. They began to set up mission on the Atlantic Coast in order to convert the Indians to Catholicism
St. Augustine
Spanish missions were established throughout Georgia's barrier islands, including ___________, _________________, & _______________ Islands.
Cumberlain, St. Simons, and Sapelo
The Spanish Presence in North America caused the Native Americans to be.....
-Forced to except European Religion
-Thousands were enslaved by the conquering Spanish and relocated to to other Spanish colonies
-Millions of Native Americans were killed by spanish weapons, and diseases like smallpox
-Some tribes were killed into extinction
The belief that there is limited wealth in the world is called _________________
mercantilism
The ____________were unable to compete with the military might of Spain in the southeast. After the slaughter of the French at Fort Caroline in 1565, they largely avoided encounters with the Spanish.
French
In the 1530's, English _______________ forced the Catholic Church out of England and declared himself to
be the leader of the Church of England (or the Anglican
Church).
English King Henry VIII
Spain considered it its national and Christian duty to
conquer England and force it to return to the ___________
Catholic Church
In 1588 ____________ was launched to invade and conquer England and reinstate the Catholic Church
The Spanish Armada
In one of the greatest military failures in all of human history, the Spanish Armada was __________________________, nearly in its entirety
trapped in a ferocious sea storm and was destroyed
Because of the Spanish Armada's failure, the Spanish Empire would eventually _________
crumble
England, now ruled by ____________ was in position to to take advantage of Spanish weakness and emerge as the new world power
Queen Elizabeth I
By 1607, the first permanent English settlement was established in ________
Jamestown
By the 1660s England has established __ colonies along the eastern coast of N. America
12
In 1732, on the eve of the founding of Georgia, North
America was divided between the claims __________, __________, & _____________________
Spain, England, and France
King Ferdinand & Queen Isabella
Spanish Monarch who sent Columbus on a journey to India
Columbus
sailed west trying to reach the Indies
Conquistadors
Spanish men sent to conquer new lands
Spain
conquered the "New World" starting with the Caribbean and Florida
Queen Elizabeth
sent the first English colonists to North America
Small Pox
Largest killer of Native Americans by Europeans
Jamestown
First permanent English settlement in North America
St. Augustine
site of the spanish capital in the New World
god, gold, glory
the 3 motivations of spanish conquest
Americas
site of spanish missions
Hernando Desoto
First European to explore Georgia and see the Mississippi River
mercantilism
belief that there is limited wealth in the world
gold
Desoto was in search of this in Georgia
Portugal
first European country to search for the Indies
King Henry VIII
Monarch who declared himself the head of the Church of England
Prince Henry (which one?)
Monarch who sent explorers around Africa to the India
Silk Road
became to Europeans to travel on/ Marco Polo's route to India
Appalachian Plateau
Smallest of the regions
Appalachian Plateau
Extreme n.w. Georgia
Appalachian Plateau
Consists of narrow valleys and wooded, rocky ridges, including Lookout Mountain
Appalachian Plateau
Georgia's only source of fossil fuels (coal deposits)
Blue Ridge Mountains
contains Ga.'s tallest mountain/highest peak: Brasstown Bald (4784 ft.)
Blue Ridge Mountains
Has Ga's highest amount of rainfall
Blue Ridge Mountains
The Southernmost point in the Great Appalachian Mountain chain
Blue Ridge REGION
Site of first Gold Rush in American History
Valley and Ridge
Consists of several mountain ridges and the valleys created between them
Valley and Ridge
Mining, farming, and textile/carpet manufacturing are the most important industries
Piedmont
Most populated region of the state, over half of the population
Piedmont
Contains the largest city, Atlanta
Piedmont
Contains most of ga's peaches
Piedmont
Most of the regions soil is made up of Georgia's red clay
Piedmont
Most industrial region of the state
Coastal Plain
Largest region in land area
Coastal Plain
Location of most of ga's peanut, cotton, and vegetable farms
Coastal Plain
Location of the first European inhabitants of Georgia, who settled along the cost at Savannah
Fall Line
Dramatic drop in elevation from Piedmont to Coastal Regions
Fall Line
Believed to be a prehistoric coastline
Fall Line
Creates a lot of waterfalls
Okefenokee Swamp
In southeastern ga.
Okefenokee Swamp
Second largest freshwater swamp in N. America
Okefenokee Swamp
A National Wildlife Refuge that is home to over 1000 types of animals and plants
Appalachian Mountains
The southern end of these are in Georgia's Blue Ridge Region
Appalachian Mountains
Tourism is the biggest industry
Chattahoochee River
Major transportation that carries cotton and other freight, and furnished hydroelectric power to factories and mills, and major source of drinking water
Chattahoochee River
Georgia's most important river
Savannah River
Extremely important to Ga.'s first settlers
Savannah River
Today it gets goods to and from Ga.'s interior to all parts of the world
Savannah River
4th biggest port in U.S.
Barrier Islands
Used to build forts to protect against enemy countries, like Spain and pirates
Barrier Islands
Block storms and hurricanes for the mainland
Barrier Islands
Popular tourist attraction
Atlantic
Surrounded by______ocean
Tennessee and North Carolina
Surrounded by_______&_______ to the North
South Carolina
Surrounded by______ to the East
Florida
Surrounded by_______to the South
Alabama
Surrounded by_______to the West