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74 terms

Micro Exam 2

STUDY
PLAY
Two common techniques you could use to generate "pure cultures"
streak and pour plate
The site where the old DNA strands separate and the new DNA strands will be synthesized is called the
Replication fork
A permanent, inheritable change in the genetic information is called a
Mutation
Agents that can denature microbial proteins include all of the following (moist heat, alcohol. acids, metallic ions, x rays) except
X rays
____heat is more rapidly effective and efficient compared to ____ heat
moist, dry
____is a control method that removes microorganisms rather than inhibiting or killing them
Filtration
Name the four major subdivisions of activity found in the bacterial growth curve
Lag, Loq, Stationary, decline
Lag
DNA replication
Loq
exponential growth, replicates quickly, symptoms appear
Stationary
Running out of nutrients (reached maximum)
Decline
Death of bacteria (endospores form)
Why is the normal process of bacterial chromosomal replication called the semi-conservative method of replication?
One parental strand pairs with one new strand. One strand is conserved
THe array of molecules known as ______are the mutation fighters in the cell
DNA repair enzymes
If it was not for ethylene oxide, we would not be able to use plastic Petri dishes for culturing bacteria
True
The effectiveness of soaps is due to the fact that they cause trapped bacteria to burst
False
The term aminoglycoside refers to antibiotics that are composed of amino groups and lipids
False
A septicemic state in a patient refers to the presence of a pathogenic organism in the bloodstream that is the cause of the disease
True
Name the two options or cycles that bacteriophages may excercise when infecting a host cell
Lytic cycle, lysogeny cycle
Lytic cycle
Cause cell to rupture
Lysogenic cycle
Spread of viral DNA occurs during usual prokaryotic processes
___is a halogen used in gaseous and liquid form for large scale disinfection of drinking water and sewage
Chlorine
X rays are known as a form of ____radiation
ionizing
X rays are known as a form of ionizing radiation because
they cause the cell to lose electrons which creates an ion
Exotoxins are
proteins
Bacteriocidal agents kill bacterial cells (t/f)
True
Free of contaminating organisms
aseptic
Symbiotic relationship benefiting both orgs
Mutualism
Parasitic org that causes disease
pathogen
Symbiotic relationship where one org derives benefit and other unharmed
Commensalism
Synthesizes oqn food from simple inorganic carbon sources
Autotroph
Sites on the chromosome to which genetic activity attributed
Locus
Bacterial product that kills other bacteria
Bacteriocin
Bacteriophage that induces lysogeny
Temperate phage
Destruction or removal of all life forms
Sterilization
Two organisms interacting resulting in a greater than additive effect
Synergism
Agent used on living objects to destroy org
Antiseptic
Stretches of DNA replicated in a discontinuous fashion
Okazaki fragment
Donor mating type in bacteria
F+
A plasmid that can transfer drug resistance
R factor
Effective agent for bacterial invasiveness
Hyaluronidase
___solution was introduced in the late nineteeth century for treating syphillis infections
salvarasan
The three types of filtration that are used for sterilization are
inorganic filtration, membrane filtration, organic filtration
In the process or autoclaving material, it is the ___ that is the sterilizing agent, not the ___.
heat, pressure
List the three basic physical requirements that must be met for successful sterilization using the autoclave
15 minutes, 121.5 C, 15 pounds per square inch
Opportuinstic pathogens
Cause disease in compromised individuals
Virulence factors include all the following except (capsules, ribosomes, exoenzymes, endotoxin, exotoxin)
Ribosomes
What are the two major drawbacks for the use of penicillin
Allergic reaction can occur, immunity to penicillin if used too much
Which is mismatched?
coagulase - fissolve fibrin clots
Which is an endotoxin?
Lipopolysaccharide
Someone who inconspicuously harbors a pathogen and spreads it to others is a
Carrier
An animal, such as an arthropod, that transmits a pathogen from one host to another is a
Vector
Name the three forms of bacterial recombination that may occur
Conjugation, transduction, transformation
Conjugation
by sex pili genetic material is transferred from donor (f+) to recipient (f-)
transduction
bacteriophage transmits genetic material
Transformation
DNA fragments pass through cell wall and plasma membrane of recipients. enzyme degrades one parent strand
The bacterial chromosome is found in a space in the cytoplasm called the ____
Nucleoid
Name the three derivatives of penicillin
amoxicillin, carbecillin, amphocillin
Infection occurs when
Pathogens enter and multiply in body tissues
An inanimate object that harbors and transmits a pathogen is a ____
fomite
A disease that has a steady frequency over time in a particular geographic location is an ____
endemic
Why can 1.5 mm of DNA fit into a cell that is only .5um
DNA is in a loop structure and chromosomes attach to each other at anchorage points that result in a flower structure
Discovered prontosil
Domagk
Discovered penicillin
Flemming
Father of chemotherapeutic agents
Ehrlich
First to isolate penicillin
Florey and Chain
What is the effect of UV light that kills bacterial cells?
Chromosome replication impaired
Name the 5 typical stages of an infectious disease
Incubation, prodrome, acme, decline, convalescence
incubation
the amount of time that elapses between entry of organism and appearance of symptoms
prodrome
general symptoms occur
Acme
more specfic symptoms occur
Decline
Symptoms subside, may be preceded by crisis period, then rapid recovery
convalescence
Symptoms are gone but infected host may still be a carrier
Groups of three consecutive bases along the DNA of a gene have the code for one
Amino acid
The minimum amount of microbes that will cause disease is the
infectious dose