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Arthropoda Short Answer
Terms in this set (20)
Do not need to memorize the species names of any ticks. But know that ticks are the vectors of the agents that cause Lyme disease and Rocky Mountain spotted fever.
You will not need to know the scientific names of fleas, but know that fleas vector the causative agent of Black Death.
Compare and contrast Annelids and Arthropods
Both the Phylum Annelida and Arthropoda exhibit segmented bodies. However, Arthropods have fused segments or Tagmata. Along with the tagmata, the arthropods have jointed appendages and a smaller coelom in comparison to the Annelida. Arthropoda also go through the process of ecdysis, while Annelida does not. But, Annelida do belong to the Clade Lophotrochozoa. Annelida is also a Marine Phylum, where Arthropoda are found in every aspect of the earth. From land to the sea.
Compare and contrast the black widow and brown recluse spiders
The black widow spider is easily differentiable from the brown recluse due to the coloration, as well as the hour glass shape found on the spider. The black widow also injects their victims with Neurotoxic venom which focuses the attack on the nervous system. In contrast to the Hemolytic venom which the brown recluse uses and causes tissue degradation. The brown recluse also have a violin shaped dorsal stripe, unlike the hourglass one found on the black widow.
Both Arthropods and Gastropods possess an open circulatory system. However, Arthropods generally move faster and have higher metabolisms. Explain how this is possible
Arthropods have a tracheal system that connects almost every cell to oxygen outside the body.
Many Arthropod species enjoy "trophic breadth." What is this and how would a particular Arthropod species benefit from it?
It is when the larvae and adults exploit different resources, a species can benefit from it because the larvae can develop without having to compete for food with the adults
What synapomorphies characterize the following taxa?: arthropoda, mandibulata, hexapoda, crustacea, myriapoda, chelicerata
Arthropoda: Jointed appendages, compound eyes, Hard exoskeleton made of chitin (terrestrial) or calcium carbonate (aquatic), malpighian tubules
Hexapoda: a thorax to which six walking legs are attachedMandibulata: Presence of Mandibles
Crustacea: Two anterior-most appendages on head form antennae; All appendages are segmented and biramous
Myriapoda (centipedes and millipedes): Trunk composed of many segments (i.e., metameres)
Subclass Chilopoda: Centipede one pair of appendages per segment Synapomorphy: poison claws present
Subclass Diplopoda: Millipedes Synapomorphies:Two pairs of uniramous appendages per diplosegment Bear conspicuous collar
Chelicerata: Presence of chelicerae (first metamere, used in food collection) and pedipalps (second metamere, used as small arms) Body separated into cephalothorax and abdomen (which often bears a telson) 4 pairs of uniramous walking appendages on body segments 3-6
Briefly describe two complex behaviors displayed by members of the Order Araneae
Some can jump to attack prey and some have unusual mating patterns. Also, spinning a web to trap prey is complex as well.
Compare and contrast Classes Chilopoda and Diplopoda
Chilopoda: Centipedes that are flattened and predaceous Diplopoda: Millipedes, cylindrical and mostly herbivorous.Crustacean feeding appendages:
What disease is associated with Linguatula serrate? How does one become infected?
Halzoun, or tongue worm; by being in direct contact with an infected dog or cat
Which groups of Crustaceans compose freshwater and marine plankton?
Explain what happens to crabs infected with Sacculina carcini
A female Sacculina infects a crab, taking shelter in a joint, and begins to grow, and prevents the crab from molting. It then grows until it breaks through the crab's shell, searching for a male to come fertilize the eggs. When that happens, the female releases a hormone that feminizes the crab, and causes it to protect the Sacculina's fertilized eggs until they are ready to hatch. After this process, the crab usually dies.
Describe how free living and parasitic forms of malacostracans differ
Some can exist on there own, while others, like the ones that attach themselves under the gills of fish, need a host to survive.
Form follows function. Give two examples of insect leg modifications that support this principle. Give two examples of insect mouthparts that support this principle
Leg Modifications: leg developed a chiliped or claw for defense/ swimmeret developed in shape to help in copulation mouthparts
Parasitoids represent another example of host manipulation. How does the jewel wasp manipulate the cockroach? What other Arthropod parasite manipulates its host? Compare and contrast
Parasitoid: an organism that spends a significant portion of its life history attached to or within a single host organism in a relationship that is in essence parasitic; unlike a true parasite, however, it ultimately sterilises or kills, and sometimes consumes, the host.
Jewel Wasp: The wasp attacks a cockroach, injecting it with venom and effectively paralyzing it, then chews off one of the cockroach's antennae. A second sting will administer venom that blocks the hormone octopamine. The jewel wasp then lays her eggs in the cockroach, which stays alive, though paralyzed, and is buried by the wasp until the eggs hatch and use the cockroach for shelter until grown.
What are two goals of an efficient respiratory system?
Excretion of wastes
efficient delivery of resources
You will not need to know the scientific names of mosquitoes (except Anopheles), black flies or bot flies. But you should know which diseases they vector, especially the filarial worms
Anopheles mosquito carries malaria.
The Black fly vectors Onchocerca volvulus, which is a bacteria that causes river blindness. the filarial worms cause lymphatic filariasis
Name two ways in which insects benefit human society. Name two ways in which insects harm human society
Two ways in which insects benefit human society is through pollination, which efficiently produces many different kinds of essential crops, and also produce gross products, such as honey and beeswax in the case of the honey bee.
Ways in which insects are destructive to society is that they can destroy crops and other economical products, such as in the case of termites and the deterioration of wood. Insects can also carry different diseases. An example is the Aedes genus of mosquito, which carries yellow fever.
How does mosquito ecology impact West Nile Virus transmission?
The Aedes genus of mosquito spreads West Nile Virus through blood to blood contact. It's normal host is a bird. In the event of a hot, dry summer bird populations tend to be greatly reduced due to the large water requirement that they demand. When the bird population is reduced, Aedes mosquitoes seek out other hosts, like humans. So, when the environment is affected, the transmission of West Nile Virus increases.
How do you distinguish Anopheles mosquitoes from other mosquitoes? What makes this mosquito so important?
The main distinguishing factor between the Anopheles mosquitos and others is the length of the palps. The palps on the Anopheles are as long as the proboscis on the mosquito. This mosquito is the main transmitter of malaria, and generally infects human individuals and cattle.