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Chapter 11 Section 2: Water Use and Management
Terms in this set (40)
What are the three major uses for water?
Residential use, agricultural use, and industrial use
What is the number one use for freshwater worldwide?
To irrigate crops
What three factors affect how people use water?
The availability of freshwater, population sizes, and economic conditions
What percentage of global water use does Industry account for?
Where does the highest percentage of industrial water use occur?
Europe and North America
Globally, what percentage of water is used by households for activities such as drinking and washing?
How much water does the average person use in a day in the United States?
300 Liters, or 80 gallons
In the United States, what percentage of water used for residential purposes is used for inside activities?
What does potable mean?
Safe to drink
What types of elements does water treatment remove from water?
Mercury, lead, and arsenic
What are pathogens?
Organisms that cause illness or disease and are found in water contaminated by sewage or animal feces
What are four examples of pathogens?
Bacteria, viruses, Protozoa, and parasitic worms
What three things is water used for industrially?
Manufacture goods, dispose of waste, and to generate power
What is most of the water in industry used for?
To cool power plants
How do power plant cooling systems work?
Water from a river or lake is pumped through pipes in a cooling tower, and is then returned to the source warmer, but cleaner
What percentage of global water use does agriculture account for?
What does 80% of the water used in agriculture do?
Evaporate and never reach plant roots
What is irrigation?
Method of providing plants with water from sources other than direct precipitation
What is the most common form of irrigation in the United States?
High-pressure overhead sprinklers
Why are the sprinklers inefficient?
Nearly half of the water evaporates and never reaches plant roots
What is an aqueduct and who first built them?
First built by Romans
Huge canals that brought water from the mountains to the dry areas in Spain and France
What are two examples of water management projects?
Dams and water diversion canals
What are the three goals of water management projects?
To bring in water to make a dry area habitable, to create a reservoir for recreation or drinking water, and to generate electricity
What are two examples of water diversion canals?
Owens River Canal in California that diverts water to Los Angeles
Colorado River Canal that diverts water to seven other states
What is a dam?
Structure built across a river to control the river's flow
What advantages does a dam provide?
Drinking water, irrigation, and the generation of electricity
What is a reservoir?
An artificial lake
What percentage of the worlds electricity is generated by hydroelectric dams?
Why has water continued to become more expensive?
It is depleting, meaning wells must be dug deeper, water must be piped greater distances, and polluted water must be cleaned up before it can be used
What the three things make up most of the water loss in agriculture?
Evaporation, seepage, and runoff
What are we using to conserve water in agriculture?
Drip irrigation systems
How does a drip irrigation system work?
It delivers small amounts of water directly to plant roots by using perforated tubing. The water is released to the plant at a controlled rate.
What are the two most widely used conservation practices in industry?
The recycling of cooling water and wastewater
Who was the first city to realize the benefit of conserving water in business?
How can people conserve water at home?
By changing a few everyday habits and by using only the water that they need
What are two examples of energy that conserve water?
Low-flow toilets and shower heads
What is one-third of water used by an average household used for?
What is xeriscaping?
Designing of a landscape with minimal water use
What are two possible solutions for our water problem?
Desalination and the transportation of water
What is desalination?
Process of removing salt from salt water
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