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Psycholology of Learning Final
Terms in this set (25)
To remember The great Lakes: (Ex. Healthy Old Men Exercise Some) is an example of what
To remember the great lakes: (Ex. HOMES) is an example of what
Why people have a hard time memorizing the characteristics of a penny: 2 factors
selective exposure bias
The tendency for people to proactively seek out information that is consistent with their pre-established attitudes and opinions (and to proactively avoid information that conflicts with such attitudes and opinions).
Theory of cognitive dissonance
Selective exposure bias is most commonly explained by this theory: Attitude-inconsistent information causes discomfort, so people avoid it.
Avoiding or disregarding attitude-inconsistent information is a means of _________
________ is an experience or piece of information that makes a person feel
crappy about himself/herself (e.g., poor exam performance; an insult; etc.).
Generally, people are motivated to view themselves as honest, fair, and good people. Cognitive Dissonance (and dissonance-reduction) often occurs when information is presented that conflicts with people's positively-biased self views.
Occurs when recall of episodic memories becomes less
accurate because of post-event information
Misinformation effect is a good example of what type of interference
In the bookstore experiment, Students whos narrative included an incorrect tool:
• were _____ likely to correctly recall the tool they actually saw
• were _____ likely to incorrectly recall the tool they read about
When asked to memorize and then recall lists of words that are categorically similar, people falsely recall words that are categorically similar but were not on the original list.
time, source reliability, Discussion and rehearsal, state of mind, arousal, if you know its coming, placebos
Factors that Influence False-Memory Formation(7)
Misinformation is more influential when it comes from a _______
In one study (Wade et al., 2002), participants were shown a Photoshopped image of themselves on a hot-air balloon ride when they were five years old. They were told the photographs were obtained from their parents. ___% of participants "remembered" the incident (including minute details; with high confidence).
People are ____(More/less) susceptible to forming false memories when they experience high arousal (e.g., fear, excitement, etc.) either during or immediately following the event.
is the Freudian idea that people's unconscious minds protect them
from their own painful memories by unconsciously inhibiting them
weapon focus effect
What effect is this: Witnesses of violent crimes tend to narrowly focus their attention on deadly weapons. When deadly weapons are present, people's memories of the deadly weapon tend to be quite good, but their memories of other details (e.g., identifying features of the perpetrator) tend to be poor.
Which effect: pertain to the idea that concrete words (e.g., desk, computer) are understood more easily than abstract words (e.g., love, freedom)
dual coding theory
Theory: Concrete words are easier to process because they are coded via both verbal and visual cognitive processes
context availability theory
Theory: Concrete words are easier to process because they are more readily associated with a context
Concrete (vs. abstract) information is..(choose FALSE one)
1Easier to Memorize & Recall)
2 Easier to Comprehend when reading
3 Easier to understand because words are better known
4 More influential in guiding decision-making...
In the Borgida & Nisbett, 2006 study:
• Students are more influenced by a single face-to-face negative comment about a professor because its _______ than they are by collections of written statements and aggregate ratings because its ______
is a concrete IF/THEN statement regarding self-regulated goal pursuit.
•Implementation Intention example: "When I get home from playing basketball,I will eat, shower, and then sit at my desk and read my Higbee book with my computer and cell phone turned off."
1. "I will study more for exam 4 than I did for exam 3"
2. "I want to get straight A's this semester."
3. "When I come home, I will clean my room with my LilWayne on"
-Pick which one shows more reliably which increases goal pursuit
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