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31 terms

Ch. 5 Plate Tectonics

Ch. 5 earth science vocab sections 1-5
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Seismic waves
Vibrations that travel through earth carrying the energy released during an earthquake
Pressure
results from a force pressing on an area
Crust
the layer of rock that forms Earth's outer crust
Basalt
dark rock with a fine texture
Granite
a rock that usually is a light color and has a coarse grain texture
Mantle
a layer of hot rock
Lithosphere
the uppermost part of the mantle and the crust together forms this rigid layers
Asthenospere
soft layer of the mantle on which the lithosphere floats
Outer core
a layer of molten metal that surrounds the inner core
Inner core
a dense ball of solid metal
Radiation
the transfer of energy through space
Conduction
heat transfer within a material or between materials that are touching
Convection
heat transferred by the movement of currents within a fluid
Density
a measurement of how much mass there is in a volume of a substance
Convection current
the flow that transfers heat within a fluid
continental drift
Wegener's idea that the continents slowly moved over Earth's surface
Pangaea
all the continents together to form a super-continent
fossil
any trace of an ancient organism that has been preserved in a rock
mid-ocean ridges
an undersea mountain chain where new ocean floor is produced
sonar
a device that bounces sound waves off underwater objects and then records the echoes of these sound waves
sea-floor spreading
the process by witch molten material adds new oceanic crust to the ocean floor
deep-ocean trench
deep underwater canyons
subduction
the process by which ocean floor sinks beneath a deep-ocean trench and back into the mantle
plate
the separated sections that the lithosphere is broken up into
scientific theory
a well-tested concept that explains a wide range of observations
plate tectonics
the pieces of earths lithosphere are in slow, constant motion, driven by convection currents in the mantle
fault
breaks in earths crust where rocks have slipped past each other
divergent boundary
the place where two plates move apart, or diverge
rift valley
a deep valley
convergent boundary
he place where two plates come together, or converge
transform boundary
a place where two plates slip past each other, moving in opposite directions