Chapter 29, 30 and 31 quiz
Terms in this set (64)
In 1960, five developing oil-rich countries formed this cartel. In response to U.S. support for Israel, the Arab states in this cartel declared an oil embargo in October 1973.
The combination of rising inflation and rising unemployment. During the 1970s, the American economy experienced this.
Suburbanization and the economic crisis combined powerfully in what became this revolt, a dramatic reversal of the postwar spirit of generous public investment.
Increasing economic competition form overseas created hard times for American industry in the 1970s and 80s. Many of the nation's once-proud core industries, such as steel, declined precipitously in these decades.
This was a method used by Carter and Reagan to stimulate competition and cut prices but it also drove firms out of business and hurt unionized workers.
Blue Collar Blues
De-industrialization threw many tens of thousands of these workers out of well-paid union jobs.
Environmental Protection Agency
Congress passed the National Environment Policy Act, creating this agency in 1970. It administers federal programs aimed at controlling pollution and protecting the environment.
A book written by Rachel Carson in 1962. This book is widely known for helping launch the Environmental Movement in the 60s. This book discusses the harms of pesticides and their threat to humans once released into the biosphere.
A holiday conceived of by environmental activist and Senator Gaylord Nelson to encourage support for and increase awareness of environmental concerns. On the first celebration on March 22, 1970, 20 million citizens gathered in communities across the country to express their support for a cleaner, healthier planet.
Three Mile Island
On March 28, 1979, a nuclear reactor at a plant on this island near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, malfunctioned. The reactor over-heated after its cooling system failed, and fear quickly arose that radiation might escape and spread over the region. Two days later, low-level radiation actually did escape from the crippled reactor. Officials evacuated some residents, while others fled on their own. In all, more than 100,000 residents were evacuated from the surrounding area. On April 9, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the federal agency that monitors the nuclear power industry, announced that the immediate danger was over. These events rekindled the debate over nuclear power. Supporters of nuclear power pointed out that no one had been killed or seriously injured. Opponents countered by saying that chance alone had averted a tragedy. They demanded that the government call a halt to the construction of new power plants and gradually shut down existing nuclear facilities. While the government did not do that, federal officials did recognize nuclear energy's potential danger to both humans and the environment. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission strengthened its safety standards and improved its inspection procedures.
A classified study of the Vietnam War that was carried out by the Department of Defense. An official of the department, Daniel Ellsberg, gave copies of the 7,000 page document in 1971 to the New York Times and Washington Post. It revealed that the government planned to enter the war at the same time Johnson was promising the country he would not send troops. This document confirmed to Americans that the government had not been honest about its' war intentions.
A break-in at the Democratic National Committee headquarters in Washington, D.C. by members of Richard Nixon's administration because he feared that he was going to loss the re-election. This caused Nixon to resign.
This is a political term that came into wide use during the 1960s and 1970s. At the time, it was most frequently used to describe public skepticism about the Johnson administration's statements and policies on the Vietnam War. This term was coined by J. William Fulbright, a Democrat from Arkansas, when he could not get a straight answer from President Johnson's Administration regarding the war in Vietnam. This term became popular after the Tet Offensive.
War Powers Act
Passed in 1973, this act limited the power of the president to commit U.S. military forces. Under the act, the president must inform Congress before troops are committed and must get congressional approval for a deployment of longer than 60 days
Freedom of Information Act
A law passed in 1966 that requires the federal executive branch and regulatory agencies to make information available to journalists, scholars, and the public unless it falls into one of several confidential categories (military or intelligence documents, trade secrets or private personnel files).
Ethics in Government Act
Passed in 1978 as a result of the Nixon-Watergate Scandal. This act created mandatory, public disclosure of financial and employment history of public officials and their immediate family. It also created restrictions on lobbying efforts by public officials for a set period after leaving public office.
Actions taken by governments and private institutions to increase the number of people in selected demographic groups attending particular schools, being employed in specific corporations, or participating in various activities.
Equal Rights Amendment
A constitutional amendment originally introduced in Congress in 1923 and passed by Congress in 1972, stating that "equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex." Despite public support, the amendment failed to acquire the necessary support from three-fourths of the state legislatures.
Phyllis Schlafly and STOP ERA
A New Right's activist that opposed the ratification of the Equal Rights Amendment. She led this organization to block the ratification of the ERA.
Roe v. Wade
This 1973 Supreme Court case declared that a state ban on all abortions was unconstitutional. The decision forbade state control over abortions during the first trimester of pregnancy, permitted states to limit abortions to protect the mother's health in the second trimester, and permitted states to protect the fetus during the third trimester.
A closeted businessman in NY until he was forty. He arrived in San Francisco in 1972 and threw himself into city politics. He ran as an openly gay candidate for city council twice and the State assembly once, both times unsuccessfully.
The Fourth Great Awakening
Resurgence of religion that is still occurring today. Emphasizing an intimate, personal salvation (being "born again"), focusing on a literal translation of the bible, and regarding the death and resurrection of Jesus as the central message of Christianity.
World Trade Organization
The United States became a member of this organization. It provides a framework for negotiating and formalizing trade agreements. It replaced the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade formed in 1947.
To offset the economic clout of the European bloc,in 1993 the U.S., Canada, and Mexico signed this trade agreement. It encourages free trade between these North American countries.
Internet or World Wide Web
Its debut in 1991, a collection of servers that allowed access to millions of documents, pictures, and other materials-enhanced the popular appeal and commercial possibilities of the internet.
Immigration Act of 1965
This act eliminated the 1924 quota system, which had favored Northern Europe. As a result, it led to an extraordinary inflow of immigrants mostly from Mexico, South America, and Asia.
In the 1990s, this concept emerged to define social diversity. This concept suggested, Americans were not of a single people, into whom others melted. Rather, Americans were comprised of a diverse set of ethnic and racial groups living and working together.
Women's right to this dramatically increased during this time period with limitations. In the 1989 case Webster v. Reproductive Health Services, the Supreme Court upheld the authority of state governments to limit the use of public funds and facilities for abortions. In the 1992 case Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Casey, the Supreme Court upheld a law requiring a 24 hour waiting period prior to an abortion.
Defense of Marriage Act
This 1966 act declared that states are not obligated to recognize any same sex marriages that might not be legally sanctioned in other states and defined marriage and spouse in heterosexual terms for federal law.
From 1990 to 2010, the United States made substantial progress in improving health. Life expectancy at birth increased, all-cause death rates at all ages decreased, and age-specific rates of years lived with disability remained stable.
Contract with America
The name given to the initiatives promoted by Newt Gingrich. He called for significant tax cuts, reductions in welfare programs, anti-crime initiatives, and cutbacks in federal regulations.
Civil war broke out in this country. As the Communist regime fell, this country was divided up into Serbia, Bosnia-Hergezovenia, Macedonia, Croatia and Slovenia.
A network of radical Islamic terrorists organized by the wealthy Saudi exile Osama Bin Laden. This organization is responsible for the 9/11 terrorist attack.
Economic Growth and Tax Relief Act
This 2001 act slashed income tax rates, extended the earned income credit for the poor, and phased out the estate tax by 2010. As a result, it skewed the distribution of tax benefits upward and the massive tax cuts combined with lots of spending plunged the federal government into debt.
September 11, 2001
The day when Islamic terrorists from Al Qaeda hijacked four commercial jets and flew two of them in NY's World Trade Center, destroying them and killing more than 2,900 people.
War on Terror
After 9/11, President George W. Bush declared this, aimed at defeating international terrorist organizations, destroying terrorist training camps, and bringing terrorists themselves to justice.
The soviet army entered this country in 1978. They started fighting the soviets and the U.S. provided training and weapons to anti-Soviet forces. They defeated the Soviets, leading to the rise of the taliban who provided a safe heaven for Al Queda and attack of 9/11.
In 2001, Bush used the War on Terror as the premise for a new policy of preventable war. It was the oil, in the end, that was vital interest to the United States.
The Great Recession
The recession that started in 2008 because the housing bubble popped which resulted in high unemployment.
This party gave voice to the extreme individualism and anti-government sentiment traditionally associated with right movements in the United States. This party rallied Americans against Obama's health-care bill.
Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act
Also known as "Obamacare", the 2010 act extended health-care insurance to about 30 million Americans, marking a major step toward achieving the century-old goal of universal health-care coverage for all citizens.
Middle East and "Arab Spring"
Obama faced two wars in the Middle East. He began in 2010 to draw down troops stationed in Iraq and by 2011 all soldiers were out. In late 2010, this is the name given to the series of multi-country demonstrations and protests that resulted in the removal of the regions autocratic rulers.
The rise in the sea level is caused by the increasing consumption of oil that increases green-house gases.
A pragmatic approach stressing national interest rather than ethical goals. Was practiced heavily by Nixon.
Iran Hostage Crisis
In November 1979, revolutionaries stormed the American embassy in Tehran and held 52 Americans hostage. The Carter administration tried unsuccessfully to negotiate for the hostages release. On January 20, 1981, the day Carter left office, Iran released the Americans, ending their 444 days in captivity.
Conservative Protestants and Catholics joined together to form this alliance. They condemned divorce, abortion, premarital sex, and feminism.
President that served from 1981-1989. He ran on a campaign based on the common man and "populist" ideas. He served as governor of California from 1966-1974, and he participated in the McCarthy Communist scare. Iran released hostages on his Inauguration Day in 1980. While president, he developed Reagannomics, the trickle down effect of government incentives. He cut out many welfare and public works programs. He used the Strategic Defense Initiative to avoid conflict. His meetings with Gorbachev were the first steps to ending the Cold War. He was also responsible for the Iran-contra Affair which brought hostages with guns.
Used by analysts to denote traditionally Democratic voters, especially white working-class Northerners and blue-collar workers, who defected from their party to support Republican President Ronald Reagan in both the 1980 and 1984 elections.
Reaganomics or Supply-Side Economics
This is the name of the economic policies that President Reagan implemented. The key goals included: reducing federal taxes for businesses and wealthy Americans, reduce corporate tax rates and encourage private investment, and promote economic growth by deregulating business.
Sandra Day O'Conner
She was appointed by Reagan as the first woman on Supreme Court in 1981. She shaped its decisions making as a swing vote between Liberals and Conservatives.
Withing two decades, this sexually transmitted disease had spread worldwide, infecting more than 50 million people of both sexes, and killed more than 20 million.
The Computer Revolution
Billgates, Paul Allen, Steve Jobs, and Steve Wozniak were four entrepreneurs who pioneered this revolution in the 1970s and 80s. Computers became accessible to a majority of Americans.
CIA director William Casey and National Security Advisor William Poindexter believed if the Sandinistas took over in Nicaragua, a domino affect in Central America would take place. Poindexter and Casey found a way to sell arms to Iran for millions of dollars via Oliver North. That money was then used to buy weapons for the Contras, even after aid to the Contras had been cut by Congress. Resulted in the persecution of North and several other officials and weakened Reagan domestically--he proposed no bold domestic policy initiatives in his last 2 years.
Policy of openness initiated by Gorbachev in the 1980s that provided increased opportunities for freedom of speech, association and the press in the Soviet Union.
A policy initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev that involved restructuring of the social and economic status quo in communist Russia towards a market based economy and society.
A relatively young Russian leader who became general secretary of the Communist Party in 1985. His liberalization effort improved relations with the West, but he lost power after his reforms led to the collapse of Communist governments in eastern Europe.
Persian Gulf War
A war fought in 1991 between Iraq and a coalition of countries led by the United States to remove Iraqi forces from Kuwait, which they had invaded in hopes of controlling their oil supply. A very one sided war with the United States' coalition emerging victorious.
Clean Air Act
Passed in 1970, this law required developers to file environment impact statements accessing the effect of their projects on ecosystems.
Bakke v. University of California
Supreme Court case in 1978 that ruled that a university's use of racial "quotas" in its admissions process was unconstitutional, but a school's use of "affirmative action" to accept more minority applicants was constitutional in some circumstances.
The Burger Court
Despite the conservative credentials of its new members, this court refused to scale back the liberal precedents set under Warren. Most prominently, in Roe v. Wade, this court extended the right of privacy developed under Warren to include women's access to abortion.
Windsor v. United States
In this 2013 case, the Supreme Court held that restricting U.S. federal interpretation of "marriage" and "spouse" to apply only to heterosexual unions is unconstitutional under the Due Process Clause of the Fifth Amendment.
In 1978, Jarvis proposed this proposition, an initiative that would roll back property taxes, cap future increases for present owners, and require that all tax measures have a 2/3rds majority in the legislature.
This was the name given to the Northeast and Midwest, where it used to be the country's manufacturing heartland.
This was caused by the OPEC embargo on oil in 1973. This drove home the realization that the earth's resourced are not limitless. This caused the era's revival of environmentalism.
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