Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 14 The Digestive System


Terms in this set (...)

The opening on the terminal end of the large intestine is called the _________.
The organ that connects the pharynx to the stomach is the _________.
The innermost layer of the alimentary canal is referred to as the _________.
parietal peritoneum
The serosal membrane lining the abdominopelvic cavity by way of the mesentery is called the _________.
The upper, Expanded part of the stomach lateral to the cardiac region is called the _________.
Large wrinklelike folds in the stomach lining, present when the stomach is empty, that allow for expansion when the stomach is filling are called_________.
Food that resembles heavy cream after being processed in the stomach is called _________.
The last subdivision do the small intestine is called the _________.
The sphincter that prevents food from leaving the stomach is the _________ sphincter.
Bile is formed by the_________.
The rich capillary bed and modified lymphatic capillary found within each villus is called a _________.
goblet cells
Cells abundant within the large intestine that produce large amounts of lubricating mucus to aid in the passage of feces to the end if the digestive tract are called _________.
deciduous teeth
Milk teeth that begin to erupt at around six months are also called the _________.
gingiva (gum)
The enamel-covered crown of the tooth is exposed just about the _________.
The material on the outermost surface of the root that attaches a tooth to the periodontal membrane (ligament) is called _________.
Bile breaks large fat globules into smaller ones to provide more surface area for fat-digesting enzymes to operate in a process known as _________.
small intestine
Segmentation is a type of mechanical digestion that occurs only in the _________.
The voluntary process of placing food into the mouth is referred to as _________.
The process of eliminating indigestible residues from the GI tracts is called _________.
The sphincter found at the distal end of the esophagus is the _________ sphincter.
The hormone responsible for promoting the release of pepsinogens, mucus, and
hydrochloric acid in the stomach is called __________.
alcohol; aspirin
Two items absorbed through the stomach walls are __________ and __________.
The emetic (vomiting) center in the brain is called the __________.
pancreatic juice
The chemical responsible for about half of protein digestion and all of fat digestion is
defecation reflex
When feces are forced into the rectum by mass movements and the wall of the rectum
becomes stretched, the __________ is initiated.
kilocalories (kcal)
The energy value of foods is measured in units called __________.
Amino acids that cannot be made by human body cells and therefore must be ingested in the
diet are said to be __________.
A chemical reaction in which substances are broken down into simpler substances is referred
to as __________.
The major fuel for making ATP in most cells of the body is a type of carbohydrate known as
Krebs cycle
The specific metabolic pathway of cellular respiration in which virtually all carbon dioxide is
made is the __________.
acetic acid
In order for fats to be used for ATP synthesis, they must be broken down to form
The polysaccharide, glycogen, is formed from the combination of thousands of glucose
molecules during a process called __________.
low -density lipoprotein (LDL)
The lipoprotein that transports cholesterol and other lipids to body cells is called
total metabolic rate
The total amount of kilocalories the body must consume to fuel all ongoing activities, which
increases dramatically during physical exertion, is called the __________.
Chemical substances released by macrophages and white blood cells that cause an upward
resetting of the body's thermostat are called __________.
Which one of the following is NOT an organ of the alimentary canal:
A) mouth
B) teeth
C) pharynx
D) esophagus
E) stomach
Which one of the following represents the correct order through which food passes in the
alimentary canal:
A) mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, large intestine, small intestine
B) mouth, esophagus, pharynx, stomach, small intestine, large intestine
C) pharynx, mouth, esophagus, stomach, large intestine, small intestine
D) mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine
E) mouth, pharynx, esophagus, small intestine, stomach, large intestine
The structure that forms the anterior roof of the mouth is the:
A) uvula
B) soft palate
C) cheek
D) teeth
E) hard palate
The fold of mucous membrane that secures the tongue to the floor of the mouth and limits
its posterior movements is called the:
A) lingual frenulum
B) hyoid bone
C) palatal frenulum
D) styloid bone
E) mandibular frenulum
Which one of the following is continuous with the esophagus:
A) nasopharynx
B) oropharynx
C) linguopharynx
D) laryngopharynx
E) esophagopharynx
Which one of the following is NOT a layer of the alimentary canal:
A) mucosa
B) submucosa
C) muscularis interna
D) muscularis externa
E) serosa
The submucosal and myenteric nerve plexuses that help regulate the mobility and secretory
activity of the GI tract organs are both part of the:
A) somatic nervous system
B) autonomic nervous system
C) sympathetic nervous system
D) fight-or-flight mechanism
E) central nervous system
When full, the average adult stomach can hold approximately:
A) 1 liter of food
B) 2 liters of food
C) 3 liters of food
D) 4 liters of food
E) 2 gallons of food
The release of food from the stomach into the small intestine is regulated by the:
A) cardioesophageal sphincter
B) pyloric sphincter (valve)
C) ileocecal valve
D) internal anal sphincter
E) hepatopancreatic ampulla
Protein digestion begins in the:
A) mouth
B) esophagus
C) stomach
D) small intestine
E) large intestine
Intrinsic factor in digestion is a stomach secretion needed for absorption of __________ from
the small intestine.
A) vitamin A
B) vitamin B12
C) vitamin C
D) vitamin D
E) vitamin K
The small intestine extends from the:
A) cardioesophageal sphincter to the pyloric sphincter
B) pyloric sphincter to the ileocecal valve
C) ileocecal valve to the appendix
D) appendix to the sigmoid colon
E) cardioesophageal sphincter to ileocecal valve
Which one of the following is the middle section of the small intestine:
A) duodenum
B) ascending colon
C) jejunum
D) descending colon
E) ileum
Enzymes and bile are carried by the pancreatic duct and bile duct into the:
A) duodenum
B) jejunum
C) ileocecal valve
D) ileum
E) large intestine
The primary function of the small intestine is:
A) absorption of nutrients
B) absorption of water
C) waste secretion
D) vitamin conversion
E) mineral secretion
Which one of the following is NOT a modification (which is designed to increase surface
area for absorption) within the small intestine:
A) microvilli
B) villi
C) Peyer's patches
D) circular folds
E) plicae circulares
Which one of the following is NOT a subdivision of the large intestine:
A) cecum
B) appendix
C) duodenum
D) colon
E) rectum
The organ responsible for drying out indigestible food residue through water absorption
and the elimination of feces is the:
A) stomach
B) large intestine
C) small intestine
D) pancreas
E) lever
The opening of the large intestine is called the:
A) cecum
B) sigmoid colon
C) rectum
D) anus
E) ileum
Amylase is an enzyme that is only able to digest:
A) protein
B) starch
C) fat
D) vitamins
E) minerals
The number of permanent teeth within a full set of adult teeth is:
A) 20
B) 24
C) 28
D) 32
E) 36
The anterior chisel-shaped teeth that are adapted for cutting are called:
A) incisors
B) canines
C) premolars
D) molars
E) wisdom teeth
The accessory digestive organ that produces enzymes that break down all food groups is the:
A) liver
B) gallbladder
C) salivary glands
D) pancreas
E) liver and gallbladder
Bile is produced by the __________ but stored in the __________.
A) liver; pancreas
B) gallbladder; liver
C) liver; gallbladder
D) small intestine; pancreas
E) gallbladder; pancreas
Buildup of bile within the liver leading to bile pigments circulating through the body could
cause tissues to turn yellow and a condition called:
A) cyanosis
B) erythematosis
C) jaundice
D) hepatitis
E) cirrhosis
The sequence of steps by which large food molecules are broken down into their respective
building blocks by catalytic enzymes within hydrolysis reactions is called:
A) ingestion
B) propulsion
C) mechanical digestion
D) chemical digestion
E) absorption
The propulsive process that moves food from one organ to the next is called:
A) ingestion
B) peristalsis
C) chemical digestion
D) mastication
E) absorption
The process by which food within the small intestine is mixed with digestive juices by
backward and forward movement across the internal wall of the organ is called:
A) peristalsis
B) segmentation
C) defecation
D) chemical digestion
E) absorption
Which one of the following is NOT one of the carbohydrates that the human digestive
system is able to break down to simple sugars:
A) cellulose
B) sucrose
C) lactose
D) maltose
E) starch
Proteins are digested to their building blocks which are called:
A) peptides
B) amino acids
C) polypeptides
D) fatty acids
E) glycerol
Transport of digested end products from the lumen GI tract into the bloodstream or
lymphatic fluid is called:
A) ingestion
B) propulsion
C) digestion
D) absorption
E) defecation
Digestion is primarily controlled by the:
A) sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system
B) medulla oblongata
C) somatic nervous system
D) enterogastric reflex
E) parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system
Which one of the following is NOT true of the sensors involved in digestive reflexes:
A) they activate or inhibit lacteal absorption
B) they respond to stretch of the organ by the volume of food within its lumen
C) they start reflexes that either activate or inhibit digestive glands
D) they respond to the relative pH content within that particular digestive organ
E) they respond to the presence of breakdown products of digestion
The first nutrient to be chemically digested is:
A) starch
B) protein
C) fat
D) minerals
E) vitamins
The process of swallowing is also known as:
A) mastication
B) segmentation
C) deglutition
D) defecation
E) absorption
Which one of the following alimentary segments has no digestive function:
A) stomach
B) ascending colon
C) ileum
D) esophagus
E) duodenum
Which one of the following is NOT involved in the swallowing reflex:
A) tongue
B) soft palate
C) larynx
D) pharynx
E) esophagus
The amount of gastric juice produced every day by an average-sized adult is:
A) 1-2 liters
B) 2-3 liters
C) 3-4 liters
D) 1-2 gallons
E) 2-3 gallons
The hormone responsible for causing the stomach to release pepsinogens, mucus, and
hydrochloric acid is:
A) rennin
B) bile
C) gastrin
D) pepsin
E) amylase
The enzyme responsible for converting milk protein in the stomach to a substance that looks
like sour milk in infants is:
A) pepsin
B) salivary amylase
C) pancreatic amylase
D) bile
E) rennin
The journey of chyme through the small intestine takes:
A) 2-4 hours
B) 3-6 hours
C) 6-8 hours
D) 8-10 hours
E) 10-12 hours
Enzyme-rich pancreatic juice contains all the following EXCEPT:
A) amylase
B) trypsin
C) nuclease
D) pancreatase
E) lipase
Which of the following influence the release of pancreatic juice and bile:
A) rennin and cholecystokinin
B) gastrin and rennin
C) cholecystokinin and gastrin
D) secretin and gastrin
E) cholecystokinin and secretin
Which one of the following is NOT absorbed by the human large intestine:
A) water
B) vitamin K
C) some of the B vitamins
D) ions
E) protein
The energy value of foods commonly counted by dieters is measured in units called:
B) calories
C) kilocalories
D) coenzymes
E) carb units
Inorganic substances necessary to body functioning that must be ingested through the diet
A) vitamins
B) coenzymes
C) carbon
D) minerals
E) complete proteins
The process by which larger molecules or structures are built up from smaller ones is called:
A) anabolism
B) catabolism
C) metabolism
D) carbolysis
E) glycolysis
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is produced in greatest quantity during:
A) glycolysis
B) the Krebs cycle
C) protein metabolism
D) the electron transport chain
E) fat metabolism
The liver metabolizes fats for all of the following reasons EXCEPT:
A) ATP production
B) synthesis of lipoproteins
C) synthesis of thromboplastin
D) synthesis of vitamin K
E) synthesis of cholesterol
Acidosis (ketoacidosis) occurs when __________ is digested.
A) fat
B) glycogen
C) glucose
D) protein
E) glycogen or glucose
Which one of the following is NOT a main role of the liver:
A) to detoxify drugs and alcohol
B) to degrade hormones
C) to make cholesterol
D) to process nutrients during digestion
E) to add ammonia to the blood
Nutrients detour through the liver via the:
A) circle of Willis
B) hepatic portal circulation
C) Bowman's capsule
D) electron transport chain
E) glycogenesis
Which one of the following is NOT true of cholesterol:
A) it provides energy fuel for muscle contraction
B) it serves as the structural basis of steroid hormones
C) it serves as the structural basis of vitamin D
D) it is a major building block of plasma membranes
E) only about 15 percent comes from the diet
The hereditary inability of tissue cells to metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine, which
can result in brain damage and retardation unless a special diet low in phenylalanine is
followed, is called:
A) cystic fibrosis
B) cleft lip
C) cleft palate
D) phenylketonuria
E) tracheoesophageal fistula
The reflex that helps an infant hold on to the nipple and swallow is called the:
A) rooting reflex
B) nursing reflex
C) sucking reflex
D) peristaltic reflex
E) fetal reflex
T/F Another name for the alimentary canal is the gastrointestinal (GI) tract.
T/F The rhythmic, wavelike propelling mechanism of the alimentary canal is called peristalsis.
T/F The process of mastication is simply known as chewing.
T/F The innermost layer of the serosa is called the parietal peritoneum.
T/F The lacy apron of the peritoneum that covers the abdominal organs is called the lesser omentum.
T/F The chief cells produce hydrochloric acid, which activates stomach enzymes.
T/F The small intestine runs from the pyloric sphincter to the ileocecal valve.
T/F The first portion of the small intestine is the jejunum.
T/F Bile enters the duodenum of the small intestine through the pancreatic duct
T/F Villi are projections of the mucosa of the stomach.
T/F The ascending colon is found on the left side of the abdominal cavity.
T/F The segment of the colon to which the appendix is attached is the cecum.
T/F The anal canal has a voluntary sphincter formed by smooth muscle only.
T/F Small pocketlike sacs within the large intestine that most often are partially contracted are called haustra.
T/F The enamel found on teeth is heavily mineralized with calcium salts and comprises the hardest substance within the entire body.
T/F The bicuspids are also called wisdom teeth.
T/F Pancreatic enzymes are released into the stomach to break down all categories of digestible foods.
T/F Bile is produced by the liver but stored in the gallbladder.
T/F Food within the lumen of the alimentary canal is considered to be outside the body.
T/F The involuntary phase of swallowing is called the buccal phase.
T/F Diverticulosis occurs when mucosa become inflamed and protrude through the wall of the small intestine.
T/F Enzymes of the microvilli are called brush border enzymes.
T/F Absence of either bile or pancreatic juice indicates that no fat digestion or absorption is
occurring. This can lead to blood-clotting problems because the liver needs vitamin K to make prothrombin.
T/F Secretin and cholecystokinin influence the release of both pancreatic juice and bile.
T/F Fats are absorbed by active transport in the small intestine.
T/F Mass movements are slow-moving contractile waves that move over large areas of the colon
three or four times each day
T/F Sugars and starches are classified as lipids
T/F Anabolism is the process in which larger molecules are built from smaller ones.
T/F Fat metabolism can result in acidosis (ketoacidosis)
T/F Optimal health of tissues is achieved when HDL and LDL are present in equal amounts within the bloodstream.
T/F The body's thermostat, which constantly regulates body temperature, is located within the
T/F Watery stools that result when food residue is rushed through the large intestine before
sufficient water has been reabsorbed, causing dehydration and electrolyte imbalance, is
called constipation.