Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 14 The Digestive System

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

anus
The opening on the terminal end of the large intestine is called the _________.
esophagus
The organ that connects the pharynx to the stomach is the _________.
mucosa
The innermost layer of the alimentary canal is referred to as the _________.
parietal peritoneum
The serosal membrane lining the abdominopelvic cavity by way of the mesentery is called the _________.
fundus
The upper, Expanded part of the stomach lateral to the cardiac region is called the _________.
rugae
Large wrinklelike folds in the stomach lining, present when the stomach is empty, that allow for expansion when the stomach is filling are called_________.
chyme
Food that resembles heavy cream after being processed in the stomach is called _________.
ileum
The last subdivision do the small intestine is called the _________.
pyloric
The sphincter that prevents food from leaving the stomach is the _________ sphincter.
liver
Bile is formed by the_________.
lacteal
The rich capillary bed and modified lymphatic capillary found within each villus is called a _________.
goblet cells
Cells abundant within the large intestine that produce large amounts of lubricating mucus to aid in the passage of feces to the end if the digestive tract are called _________.
deciduous teeth
Milk teeth that begin to erupt at around six months are also called the _________.
gingiva (gum)
The enamel-covered crown of the tooth is exposed just about the _________.
cementum
The material on the outermost surface of the root that attaches a tooth to the periodontal membrane (ligament) is called _________.
emulsification
Bile breaks large fat globules into smaller ones to provide more surface area for fat-digesting enzymes to operate in a process known as _________.
small intestine
Segmentation is a type of mechanical digestion that occurs only in the _________.
ingestion
The voluntary process of placing food into the mouth is referred to as _________.
defecation
The process of eliminating indigestible residues from the GI tracts is called _________.
cardioesophageal
The sphincter found at the distal end of the esophagus is the _________ sphincter.
gastrin
The hormone responsible for promoting the release of pepsinogens, mucus, and
hydrochloric acid in the stomach is called __________.
alcohol; aspirin
Two items absorbed through the stomach walls are __________ and __________.
medulla
The emetic (vomiting) center in the brain is called the __________.
pancreatic juice
The chemical responsible for about half of protein digestion and all of fat digestion is
__________.
defecation reflex
When feces are forced into the rectum by mass movements and the wall of the rectum
becomes stretched, the __________ is initiated.
kilocalories (kcal)
The energy value of foods is measured in units called __________.
essential
Amino acids that cannot be made by human body cells and therefore must be ingested in the
diet are said to be __________.
catabolism
A chemical reaction in which substances are broken down into simpler substances is referred
to as __________.
glucose
The major fuel for making ATP in most cells of the body is a type of carbohydrate known as
__________.
Krebs cycle
The specific metabolic pathway of cellular respiration in which virtually all carbon dioxide is
made is the __________.
acetic acid
In order for fats to be used for ATP synthesis, they must be broken down to form
__________.
glycogenesis
The polysaccharide, glycogen, is formed from the combination of thousands of glucose
molecules during a process called __________.
low -density lipoprotein (LDL)
The lipoprotein that transports cholesterol and other lipids to body cells is called
__________.
total metabolic rate
The total amount of kilocalories the body must consume to fuel all ongoing activities, which
increases dramatically during physical exertion, is called the __________.
pyrogens
Chemical substances released by macrophages and white blood cells that cause an upward
resetting of the body's thermostat are called __________.
B
Which one of the following is NOT an organ of the alimentary canal:
A) mouth
B) teeth
C) pharynx
D) esophagus
E) stomach
D
Which one of the following represents the correct order through which food passes in the
alimentary canal:
A) mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, large intestine, small intestine
B) mouth, esophagus, pharynx, stomach, small intestine, large intestine
C) pharynx, mouth, esophagus, stomach, large intestine, small intestine
D) mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine
E) mouth, pharynx, esophagus, small intestine, stomach, large intestine
E
The structure that forms the anterior roof of the mouth is the:
A) uvula
B) soft palate
C) cheek
D) teeth
E) hard palate
A
The fold of mucous membrane that secures the tongue to the floor of the mouth and limits
its posterior movements is called the:
A) lingual frenulum
B) hyoid bone
C) palatal frenulum
D) styloid bone
E) mandibular frenulum
D
Which one of the following is continuous with the esophagus:
A) nasopharynx
B) oropharynx
C) linguopharynx
D) laryngopharynx
E) esophagopharynx
C
Which one of the following is NOT a layer of the alimentary canal:
A) mucosa
B) submucosa
C) muscularis interna
D) muscularis externa
E) serosa
B
The submucosal and myenteric nerve plexuses that help regulate the mobility and secretory
activity of the GI tract organs are both part of the:
A) somatic nervous system
B) autonomic nervous system
C) sympathetic nervous system
D) fight-or-flight mechanism
E) central nervous system
D
When full, the average adult stomach can hold approximately:
A) 1 liter of food
B) 2 liters of food
C) 3 liters of food
D) 4 liters of food
E) 2 gallons of food
B
The release of food from the stomach into the small intestine is regulated by the:
A) cardioesophageal sphincter
B) pyloric sphincter (valve)
C) ileocecal valve
D) internal anal sphincter
E) hepatopancreatic ampulla
C
Protein digestion begins in the:
A) mouth
B) esophagus
C) stomach
D) small intestine
E) large intestine
B
Intrinsic factor in digestion is a stomach secretion needed for absorption of __________ from
the small intestine.
A) vitamin A
B) vitamin B12
C) vitamin C
D) vitamin D
E) vitamin K
B
The small intestine extends from the:
A) cardioesophageal sphincter to the pyloric sphincter
B) pyloric sphincter to the ileocecal valve
C) ileocecal valve to the appendix
D) appendix to the sigmoid colon
E) cardioesophageal sphincter to ileocecal valve
C
Which one of the following is the middle section of the small intestine:
A) duodenum
B) ascending colon
C) jejunum
D) descending colon
E) ileum
A
Enzymes and bile are carried by the pancreatic duct and bile duct into the:
A) duodenum
B) jejunum
C) ileocecal valve
D) ileum
E) large intestine
A
The primary function of the small intestine is:
A) absorption of nutrients
B) absorption of water
C) waste secretion
D) vitamin conversion
E) mineral secretion
C
Which one of the following is NOT a modification (which is designed to increase surface
area for absorption) within the small intestine:
A) microvilli
B) villi
C) Peyer's patches
D) circular folds
E) plicae circulares
C
Which one of the following is NOT a subdivision of the large intestine:
A) cecum
B) appendix
C) duodenum
D) colon
E) rectum
B
The organ responsible for drying out indigestible food residue through water absorption
and the elimination of feces is the:
A) stomach
B) large intestine
C) small intestine
D) pancreas
E) lever
D
The opening of the large intestine is called the:
A) cecum
B) sigmoid colon
C) rectum
D) anus
E) ileum
B
Amylase is an enzyme that is only able to digest:
A) protein
B) starch
C) fat
D) vitamins
E) minerals
D
The number of permanent teeth within a full set of adult teeth is:
A) 20
B) 24
C) 28
D) 32
E) 36
A
The anterior chisel-shaped teeth that are adapted for cutting are called:
A) incisors
B) canines
C) premolars
D) molars
E) wisdom teeth
D
The accessory digestive organ that produces enzymes that break down all food groups is the:
A) liver
B) gallbladder
C) salivary glands
D) pancreas
E) liver and gallbladder
C
Bile is produced by the __________ but stored in the __________.
A) liver; pancreas
B) gallbladder; liver
C) liver; gallbladder
D) small intestine; pancreas
E) gallbladder; pancreas
C
Buildup of bile within the liver leading to bile pigments circulating through the body could
cause tissues to turn yellow and a condition called:
A) cyanosis
B) erythematosis
C) jaundice
D) hepatitis
E) cirrhosis
D
The sequence of steps by which large food molecules are broken down into their respective
building blocks by catalytic enzymes within hydrolysis reactions is called:
A) ingestion
B) propulsion
C) mechanical digestion
D) chemical digestion
E) absorption
B
The propulsive process that moves food from one organ to the next is called:
A) ingestion
B) peristalsis
C) chemical digestion
D) mastication
E) absorption
B
The process by which food within the small intestine is mixed with digestive juices by
backward and forward movement across the internal wall of the organ is called:
A) peristalsis
B) segmentation
C) defecation
D) chemical digestion
E) absorption
A
Which one of the following is NOT one of the carbohydrates that the human digestive
system is able to break down to simple sugars:
A) cellulose
B) sucrose
C) lactose
D) maltose
E) starch
B
Proteins are digested to their building blocks which are called:
A) peptides
B) amino acids
C) polypeptides
D) fatty acids
E) glycerol
D
Transport of digested end products from the lumen GI tract into the bloodstream or
lymphatic fluid is called:
A) ingestion
B) propulsion
C) digestion
D) absorption
E) defecation
E
Digestion is primarily controlled by the:
A) sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system
B) medulla oblongata
C) somatic nervous system
D) enterogastric reflex
E) parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system
A
Which one of the following is NOT true of the sensors involved in digestive reflexes:
A) they activate or inhibit lacteal absorption
B) they respond to stretch of the organ by the volume of food within its lumen
C) they start reflexes that either activate or inhibit digestive glands
D) they respond to the relative pH content within that particular digestive organ
E) they respond to the presence of breakdown products of digestion
A
The first nutrient to be chemically digested is:
A) starch
B) protein
C) fat
D) minerals
E) vitamins
C
The process of swallowing is also known as:
A) mastication
B) segmentation
C) deglutition
D) defecation
E) absorption
D
Which one of the following alimentary segments has no digestive function:
A) stomach
B) ascending colon
C) ileum
D) esophagus
E) duodenum
C
Which one of the following is NOT involved in the swallowing reflex:
A) tongue
B) soft palate
C) larynx
D) pharynx
E) esophagus
B
The amount of gastric juice produced every day by an average-sized adult is:
A) 1-2 liters
B) 2-3 liters
C) 3-4 liters
D) 1-2 gallons
E) 2-3 gallons
C
The hormone responsible for causing the stomach to release pepsinogens, mucus, and
hydrochloric acid is:
A) rennin
B) bile
C) gastrin
D) pepsin
E) amylase
E
The enzyme responsible for converting milk protein in the stomach to a substance that looks
like sour milk in infants is:
A) pepsin
B) salivary amylase
C) pancreatic amylase
D) bile
E) rennin
B
The journey of chyme through the small intestine takes:
A) 2-4 hours
B) 3-6 hours
C) 6-8 hours
D) 8-10 hours
E) 10-12 hours
D
Enzyme-rich pancreatic juice contains all the following EXCEPT:
A) amylase
B) trypsin
C) nuclease
D) pancreatase
E) lipase
E
Which of the following influence the release of pancreatic juice and bile:
A) rennin and cholecystokinin
B) gastrin and rennin
C) cholecystokinin and gastrin
D) secretin and gastrin
E) cholecystokinin and secretin
E
Which one of the following is NOT absorbed by the human large intestine:
A) water
B) vitamin K
C) some of the B vitamins
D) ions
E) protein
C
The energy value of foods commonly counted by dieters is measured in units called:
A) ATP
B) calories
C) kilocalories
D) coenzymes
E) carb units
D
Inorganic substances necessary to body functioning that must be ingested through the diet
are:
A) vitamins
B) coenzymes
C) carbon
D) minerals
E) complete proteins
A
The process by which larger molecules or structures are built up from smaller ones is called:
A) anabolism
B) catabolism
C) metabolism
D) carbolysis
E) glycolysis
D
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is produced in greatest quantity during:
A) glycolysis
B) the Krebs cycle
C) protein metabolism
D) the electron transport chain
E) fat metabolism
D
The liver metabolizes fats for all of the following reasons EXCEPT:
A) ATP production
B) synthesis of lipoproteins
C) synthesis of thromboplastin
D) synthesis of vitamin K
E) synthesis of cholesterol
A
Acidosis (ketoacidosis) occurs when __________ is digested.
A) fat
B) glycogen
C) glucose
D) protein
E) glycogen or glucose
E
Which one of the following is NOT a main role of the liver:
A) to detoxify drugs and alcohol
B) to degrade hormones
C) to make cholesterol
D) to process nutrients during digestion
E) to add ammonia to the blood
B
Nutrients detour through the liver via the:
A) circle of Willis
B) hepatic portal circulation
C) Bowman's capsule
D) electron transport chain
E) glycogenesis
A
Which one of the following is NOT true of cholesterol:
A) it provides energy fuel for muscle contraction
B) it serves as the structural basis of steroid hormones
C) it serves as the structural basis of vitamin D
D) it is a major building block of plasma membranes
E) only about 15 percent comes from the diet
D
The hereditary inability of tissue cells to metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine, which
can result in brain damage and retardation unless a special diet low in phenylalanine is
followed, is called:
A) cystic fibrosis
B) cleft lip
C) cleft palate
D) phenylketonuria
E) tracheoesophageal fistula
C
The reflex that helps an infant hold on to the nipple and swallow is called the:
A) rooting reflex
B) nursing reflex
C) sucking reflex
D) peristaltic reflex
E) fetal reflex
true
T/F Another name for the alimentary canal is the gastrointestinal (GI) tract.
true
T/F The rhythmic, wavelike propelling mechanism of the alimentary canal is called peristalsis.
true
T/F The process of mastication is simply known as chewing.
false
T/F The innermost layer of the serosa is called the parietal peritoneum.
false
T/F The lacy apron of the peritoneum that covers the abdominal organs is called the lesser omentum.
false
T/F The chief cells produce hydrochloric acid, which activates stomach enzymes.
true
T/F The small intestine runs from the pyloric sphincter to the ileocecal valve.
false
T/F The first portion of the small intestine is the jejunum.
false
T/F Bile enters the duodenum of the small intestine through the pancreatic duct
false
T/F Villi are projections of the mucosa of the stomach.
false
T/F The ascending colon is found on the left side of the abdominal cavity.
true
T/F The segment of the colon to which the appendix is attached is the cecum.
false
T/F The anal canal has a voluntary sphincter formed by smooth muscle only.
true
T/F Small pocketlike sacs within the large intestine that most often are partially contracted are called haustra.
true
T/F The enamel found on teeth is heavily mineralized with calcium salts and comprises the hardest substance within the entire body.
false
T/F The bicuspids are also called wisdom teeth.
false
T/F Pancreatic enzymes are released into the stomach to break down all categories of digestible foods.
truee
T/F Bile is produced by the liver but stored in the gallbladder.
true
T/F Food within the lumen of the alimentary canal is considered to be outside the body.
false
T/F The involuntary phase of swallowing is called the buccal phase.
false
T/F Diverticulosis occurs when mucosa become inflamed and protrude through the wall of the small intestine.
true
T/F Enzymes of the microvilli are called brush border enzymes.
true
T/F Absence of either bile or pancreatic juice indicates that no fat digestion or absorption is
occurring. This can lead to blood-clotting problems because the liver needs vitamin K to make prothrombin.
true
T/F Secretin and cholecystokinin influence the release of both pancreatic juice and bile.
false
T/F Fats are absorbed by active transport in the small intestine.
true
T/F Mass movements are slow-moving contractile waves that move over large areas of the colon
three or four times each day
false
T/F Sugars and starches are classified as lipids
true
T/F Anabolism is the process in which larger molecules are built from smaller ones.
true
T/F Fat metabolism can result in acidosis (ketoacidosis)
false
T/F Optimal health of tissues is achieved when HDL and LDL are present in equal amounts within the bloodstream.
true
T/F The body's thermostat, which constantly regulates body temperature, is located within the
hypothalamus.
false
T/F Watery stools that result when food residue is rushed through the large intestine before
sufficient water has been reabsorbed, causing dehydration and electrolyte imbalance, is
called constipation.