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Ross Univeristy Virus Families

Herpesviridae General Characteristics

Enveloped virion
linear dsDNA
replication in nucleus
presist indefinitely in host
very fragile

Herpesviridae Transmission

Close contact, mucosal contact or short distance droplet spread (oral, nasal or genital secretions)

Herpesviridae Immunity

neutralizing antibody is primarily directed at envelope glycoprotein peplomers
viral antigens on surface of infected cells are targets for cell-mediated immune lysis

Herpesviridae Diagnosis

viral antigens (immunofluorescence staining)
Viral nucleic acid (PCR)
Viral antibodies using ELISA, virus neutralization
Virus isolation (hen's egg or cell culture)
Gross and histopathy

Alphaherpesvirinae (main subfamily) Characteristics

grow rapidly, lyse infected cells, establish latent infections in sensory ganglia, low temperatures, lesions in skin, CNS, respiratory, genital
generalized infections in neonates
Pregnant animals: mononuclear cell-associated viremia leading to abortion

Human Herpesvirus 1

Cold sores (fever blisters)

Human Herpesvirus 2

Genital Infections

Human Herpesvirus 3 (Varicella: Zostervirus)

Chicken pox and shingles

Bovine Herpesvirus 1

Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis, infectious pustular vulvovaginitis, infectious balanoposthitis, abortion

Bovine Herpesvirus 2

Bovine mammilitis, pseudo-lumpy skin disease

Bovine Herpesvirus 5


Equine Herpesvirus 1

Abortion, respiratory disease, encephalitis, perinatal foal mortality

Equine Herpesvirus 3

Coital Exanthema

Equine Herpesvirus 4


Porcine Herpesvirus 1


Feline Herpesvirus 1

Feline Viral Rhinotracheitis

Canine Herpesvirus 1

Hemorrhagic Disease in Puppies

Caprine Herpesvirus 1

Conjunctivitis, Respiratory and Enteric Disease

Gallid Herpesvirus 1

Infectious Laryngotracheitis of Chickens

Gallid Herpesvirus 2

Marek's Disease of Chickens (oncogenic)

Gallid Herpesvirus 3

Nonpathogenic Marek's Disease Virus

Meleagrid Herpesvirus 1

Nonpathogenic Turkey Herpesvirus

Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis Transmission

Aerosol derived from ocular and nasal secretionsCoitus and artificial insemination

Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis Pathogenesis

mononuclear cell-associated viremia
virus persists for years
latent virus is reactivated with injections of corticosteroids or other stresses (trigeminal nerve, sciatic nerve)

Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis Respiratory Disease

necrotic rhinitis, red nose, dust pneumonia, high morbidity(100%), low mortality (10%), fever, depression, anorexia, salvation, nasal discharge, death can be resultant of secondary bacterial bronchopneumonia

Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis Conjuctivitis

conjunctiva inflamed, edematous and mucopurulent discharge

Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis Abortion

related to respiratory form

Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis Generalized Disease of Neonatal Calves

fever, anorexia, depression, respiratory distress, diarrhea, incoordination and convulsions. Often fatal

Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis Genital Disease

no abortions seen, pain

Alphaherpesvirus IB's

eosinophilic intranuclear

Betaherpesvirus IB's

Basophilic intranuclear

Gammaherpesvirus IB's

eosionophilic intranuclear

Alphaherpesvirus diseases

infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis
Bovine Mammillitis and Pseudo-Lumpy SKin
Equine Herpesvirus 1 (Equine Abortion storm)
Hemorrhage Disease of PUppies
Feline Rhinotracheitis
Infectious Laryngotracheitis
Marek's Disease

Bovine Mammillitis and Pseudo-Lumpy SKin

Bovine Herpesvirus 2
Mechanically transmitted and trauma to skin
Mammillitis: lesions on teats, reduction in milk
Pseudo-Lumpy Skin: high fever, skin nodules


swine, dogs, cats, ruminants, horses
Porcine Herpesvirus 1
Pigs are primary host and reservoirs - nasal secretions, saliva, milk, ingestion of carcasses
Rodents are minor resevoirs

Pseudorabies pathogenesis

oral, intranasal then replicates in nasopharynx and tonsils, spreads to lymph nodes and CNS, may be brief viremia

pseudorabies in swine

no pruritis
respiratory/ CNS symptoms
no passive immunity = 100% dead

Pseudorabies in Cattle

effects CNS
"mad itch"
severe pruritis
Respiratory Failure
CNS, paralysis of pharynx, salivation

Pseudorabies in dogs/cats

Dogs: pruritis, paralysis of jaw and pharynx, no aggression
Cats: death too fast for signs

Pseudorabies Diagnosis

Virus isolation
Fluorescent antibody staining
Vaccination of swine
vaccines don't prevent infection

Equine Herpesvirus 1 Characteristics

Equine abortion virus
most virulent equine herpesvirus
abortions, respiratory, perinatal foal disease, encephalitis
inhalation, direct/indirect contact with nasal discharges, aborted fetuses/placenta

Equine Herpesvirus 1 Pathogenesis

replicates in epithelial cells of respiratory tract, regional lymph nodes, circulating leukocytes and endothelial cells, inhibits antigen presentation by inhibits TAP protein

Equine Herpesvirus 1 Clinical signs

Macrophage associated viremia, virus can spread to fetus and late term abortion
Encephalomyelitis: present as primary disease, vasculitis
Perinatal foal: dead from septicemia and interstitial pneumonia, lower body temp, 100% mortality

Equine Herpesvirus 1 Control

Inactivated vaccine, short lived immunity, must vaccinate several times a year

Equine Herpesvirus 4 Characteristics

respiratory disease, inhalation, young foals, complete recovery, secondary infection causes death, short-lived immunity so need to multiple times

Hemorrhagic Disease of Puppies
Fading Puppy Syndrome characteristics

Highly fatal under 4 weeks puppies
Canine herpesvirus 1
Transmission in utero, infected nasal, oral or vaginal secretions

Hemorrhagic disease of puppies fading puppy syndrome pathogenesis

replicate in nasal epithelium, pharynx and tonsils, followed by macrophage-associated viremia and virus replication in endothelial cells. Large ecchymotic hemorrhages and necrosis are observed in kidney and liver.

Hemorrhagic Disease of Puppies Clinical Features

painful crying, abdominal pain, anorexia, dyspnea, sort odorless yellowish green stool, no fever
meningoencephalitis: CNS signs generally dont show due to quick death

Hemorrhagic Disease of Puppies Histopathology

perivascular necrosis and hemorrhage
acidophilic or basophilic intranuclear inclusions, depending on the stage of cellular infection and method of fixation

Hemorrhagic Disease of Puppies Control

whelping box

Feline Rhinotracheitis Characteristics

Feline herpesvirus 1
transmission: ocular, nasal, and oral secretions, stay dormant with intermittent shedding

Feline Rhinotracheitis Pathogenesis

replication occurs primarily in the mucosae of the nasal septum, turbinates, nasopharynx, and tonsils

Feline Rhinotracheitis Clinical Signs

Neonates: fever, sneezing, coughing, profuse serous nasal and ocular discharge, dypsnea, anorexia, weight loss, profuse frothy salivation
keratitis with punctate corneal ulcers
abortion in first trimester

Feline Rhinotracheitis Pathology

necrosis of epithelia of nasal cavity, pharynx, epiglottis, tonsils, larynx, and trachea

Feline Rhinotracheitis Diagnosis

gross and histopathology, virus isolation, serology

Feline Rhinotracheitis Control

inactivated and attenuated live-virus

Infectious Laryngotracheitis (ILT)

acute highly contagious disease of chickens
severe dyspnea, coughing, rales
Gallid herpesvirus 1
inhalation or ingestion
severe laryngotracheitis charaterized by necrosis, ulceration, hemorrhage, and formation of diphtheritic membranes
death from asphyxiation
respiratory distress
morbidity 100%
vaccine with modified live virus

Marek's Disease (MD)

Gallid Herpesvirus 2

Mild Marek's Disease (mMDV)

preventable with HVT vaccine

Virulent Marek's Disease (vMDV)

neural and visceral lymphomas
preventable with HVT vaccine

Very Virulent Marek's Disease (vvMDV)

high incidence of neural and visceral lymphomas
oncogenic in chickens vaccinated for HVT
prevented with bivalent vaccines

Very Virulent Plus Marek's Disease (vv+MDV)

associated with a high incidence of lymphomas
oncogenic in chickens vaccinated with bivalent vaccines

Marek's Disease Transmission

highly contagious disease
inhalation of infectious feather debris, dust or chicken dander

Marek's Disease Pathogenesis

genetic susceptibility traced to different MHC class II haplotypes (B21 genetically resistant)
replication in respiratory tract followed by macrophage associated viremia

Fully Productive INfection

production of fully infectious virions (enveloped virions) and cell death (cytolysis) in feather follicle epithelium

Productive restrictive infection

production of naked virions and viral antigens and cell death
occurs in B cells and activated T cells(profound immunosuppression)

Non-productive Latent Infection

viral genome persists in lymphoid cells but no antigens are expressed

Non-productive Neoplastic Transformation

latently infected T cells undergo neoplastic transformation

Marek's Disease Lesions

result from infiltration and in situ proliferation of the transformed T lymphocytes
cell lysis in productive infections results in a marked inflammatory response

Marek's Disease CLinical Signs

progressive disease with overlapping signs, mortality 80%
Neurolymphomatosis: enlargement of one or more peripheral nerve trunks - splayed legs
Visceral Lymphomatosis: lymphocytic tumors are present in heart, liver, kidney, spleen
Ocular Lymphomatosis: graying of the iris of one or both eyes resulting from T cell infilatration
Cutaneous Lmphomatosis: plucking of the feathers reveals round, nodular lesions

Marek's Disease Diagnosis

history, age, clinical signs
detection of viral antigen using, PCR
Detection of antibodies using AGID, IFA, and virus neutralization tests
Virus isolation

Marek's Disease Control

Reportable Disease
Avirulent turkey herpesvirus
Bivalent vaccines consisting of HVT and CV1988/Rispens strain of serotype 1 or HVT


slow-replicating and cell lysis does not occur until several days after infection
chronic infection
enlarged infected cells (cytomegaly)
latent form in secretory glands and lymphoreticular cells
continuous viral excretion

Inclusion Body Rhinitis

endemic in swine up to 90%
Porcine Herpesvirus 2
transmitted through inhalation, transplacental

Inclusion Body Rhinitis Pathogenesis

primary virus replication in nasal mucous glands and respiratory tract
viremia, macrophages, epithelial-type cells, endothelial cells
petechial hemorrhages and edema
anemia in neonates due to bone marrow damage

Inclusion Body Rhinitis Clinical Signs

piglets less than 3 weeks
sneezing, coughing, serous nasal and ocular discharge and depression

Inclusion BOdy Rhinitis Pathology

petechiae and edema
basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies and cytomegaly

Inclusion BOdy Rhinitis Diagnosis

gross and histo
virus isolation from nasal mucosa, lung, and kidney
detection of antibodies using ELISA or IFA test

Inclusion Body Rhinitis Control

good management and abstention from introducing new stock during mating and first month


lymphotropic (replicate in T or B lymphocytes), lymphoid tumors
latency in lymphoid tissues

Malignant Catarrhal Fever (MCF)

sporadic but highly fatal disease of ruminants
lymphoid and epithelial cells of respiratory and GI
Alecelaphine herpesvirus 1
Alecelaphine herpesvirus 2
Ovine herpes virus 2

Malignant Catarrhal Fever (MCF) hosts

cattle, deer, buffalo
REservoirs: wildebeest, hartebeest

Malignant Catarrhal Fever Transmission

close contact esp in african form: cell free state
American form: close contact

Malignant Catarrhal Fever Pathogenesis

cell-associated viremia, immune mediated since virus is usually absent
widespread necrotizing vasculitis

Peracute form of Malignant Catarrhal Fever

1-3 days
severe inflammation of oral and nsal mucosa and hemorrhagic gastroenteritis

Acute form of Malignant Catarrhal Fever

fever, depression, profuse nasal and ocular discharge

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