Promoting Healthy People Final Exam
Terms in this set (71)
A dynamic state or condition of the human organism that is
multidimensional in nature, a resource for living, and results from a person's interactions with and adaptations to his or her environment.
A group of people who have common characteristics.
Actions that society takes collectively to ensure that the conditions in which people can be healthy can occur; most inclusive term.
Health status of a defined group of people and the actions and conditions to promote, protect, and preserve their health.
Health status of people who are not organized; have no identity as a group.
Health problems, issues, and concerns that transcend national boundaries.
Personal Health Activities
Individual actions and decision making that affect the health of an individual or his or her immediate family members or friends.
Community/Public Health Activities
Activities aimed at protecting or improving the health of a population or community.
Ex. maintaining birth and death records, protecting food and water supply, etc.
What are the factor that affect the health of a community?
Social & Cultural
What are the physical factors that affect the health of a community?
What are the social and cultural factors that affect the health of a community?
Beliefs, traditions, and prejudices
True/False: Religion can positively/negatively affect a community's health
A process through which communities are helped to identify common problems or goals, mobilize resources, and in other ways develop and implement strategies for reaching their goals they have collectively set.
Is not a science,but an art of consensus building within a democratic process.
The resistance of a population to the spread of an infectious agent based on the immunity of a high proportion of individuals.
Many community health practices went unrecorded. Practices may have involved taboos, rites, and spiritual beliefs. Archeological evidence of community health activities dating back to 2000 B.C.
The Eighteenth Century
Characterized by industrial growth. Cities overcrowded, water supplies inadequate and unsanitary, problems with trash, workplaces unsafe.
1796-Dr. Jenner demonstrated process of vaccination against smallpox.
What was the average age of death in the 18th Century?
When was the first census taken?
Better agriculture leads to improved nutrition. Federal government approach to health: laissez faire (noninterference)
Epidemic problems in major cities
When was the Shattuck report first discovered?
1850 (19th century)
When did the modern era of public health begin?
1850 (19th century)
True/False: In 1854, John Snow helped interrupt a cholera epidemic by having the handle removed from this pump, located on Broad Street
What was the life expectancy in 1900?
What was the leading cause of death in the 20th century?
True/False:During the 20th century, vitamin deficiencies and poor dental health was common in slums
Health Resource Development Period (1900-1960)
Growth of health care facilities and providers
Reform phase (1900-1920)
Great Depression and WWII
Period of Social Engineering (1960-1973)
Federal government became active in health matters
1965 Medicare and Medicaid was established
Improved standards in health facilities
Influx of federal dollars accelerated rate of increase cost of health care
Period of Health Promotion (1974-present)
Identification that premature death traceable to lifestyle and health behaviors
Healthy People publication established
Healthy People 2020
National Prevention Strategy
What does the acronym MAP-IT stand for?
U.S.S Community/Public Health in Early 2000s
- Health care delivery
- Environmental problems
- Lifestyle diseases
- Communicable diseases
- Alcohol and other drug abuse
- Health disparities
- Public Health preparedness
World Community/ Public Health in Early 2000s
Poor sanitation and unsafe drinking water
21st Century Global Health Achievements
Reduction in child mortality
Access to safe water and sanitation
Malaria prevention and control
Prevention and control of HIV/AIDS
TB control of infections diseases
Global road safety
Improved preparedness and reponse
study of distrribution and determinants of health-related states or events in specified populations
unexpectedly large number of cases of an illness, specific health-related behavior or event, in a particular population.
disease that occurs regularly in a population as a matter of course.
outbreak over wide geographic area
True/False: More than 25 million people died during the influenza pandemic of 1918-1819.
Number of events in a given population over a given period of time or given point in time. Allow for comparison of outbreaks at different times or in different places.
Population at risk
those susceptible to particular disease or condition
Number of new health-related events or cases of a disease in a population exposed to that risk during a particular period of time, divided by total number in same population
incidence rate calculated for a particular population for a single disease outbreak; expressed as a percentage
number of new and old cases
denominator includes the total population
used to make comparisons of relative risks across groups and over time when groups differ in age structure
measure morbidity and mortality for particular populations or diseases
Physician, clinics, and hospitals require to report births,deaths, and notifiable diseases
infectious diseases in which health officials request or require reporting; can become epidemics. Reported to CDC via National Electronic Telecommunications System (NETS)
most reliable measure of population health status
average number of years a person from a specific cohort is projected to live from a given point in time
Years of potential life lost (YPLL)
number of years lost when death occurs before one's life expectancy
data collected by someone else, possibly for another purpose. useful in planning of public health programs and facilities
- Enumeration of the population
- Taken every 10 years
- Gathers data on race, age, income, employment, education, dwelling type, other
Statistical Abstract of the United States
Book published annually by Bureau of Census. Summary of statistics on social, political, and economic organization of the United States
Monthly Vital Statistics Report
Vital statistics are summaries of records of major life events:: birth, death, marriage, divorce. Published by National Center for Health Statistics under the CDC. Also calculates death rates by race and age.
Morbidity and Mortality Week Report (MMWR)
Prepared by CDC from state health department reports.
Reports morbidity and mortality data by state and region of US
Reports outbreak of disease, environmental hazards, unusual cases, or other public health problems
National Health Survey Act of 1956
Authorized continuing survey of amount, distribution, and effects of illness and disability in the U.S.
Three types of surveys (National Health Surveys)
Health interviews of people
Clinical tests, measurements, and physical examinations
Surveys of places where people receive medical care
Investigations carried out when disease or death occurs in unexpected or unacceptable numbers
Describe epidemics with respect to person, place, and time (Who? What? Where?)
Aimed at testing hypothesis about relationships between health problems and possible risk factors
graphic display of the cases of disease according to the time or date of onset of symptoms
investigator observes natural course of events, noting exposed vs. unexposed and disease development
investigator allocates exposure and follows development of disease
Case Control study
Compares those with disease to those without but with similar background and/or with prior exposure to certain risk factors. Aimed at identifying factors more common in case than control group.
Classified by exposure to one or more risk factors and observed to determine rate of disease development
Carries out to identify cause of disease or determine effectiveness of vaccine, drug, or procedure
Criteria of causation
Questions exposure causing development of disease
a set of interrelated constructs (concepts), definitions, and propositions used to understand events/situations
Systematic & orderly
Provides a framework for program & policy development
How to apply theory
Identify goals and objectives
Select theoretical framework
Connect theory and practice
Adapt or design evaluation tools
a mixture of ideas or concepts taken from any number of theories and used together. Helps explain a specific problem in a particular setting. Not always a specific as theories
a model of health that emphasizes the linkages and relationships among factors/ determinants affecting health. A framework for the determinants of health.