15 terms

Chapter 8: Photosynthesis Vocabulary

- 8.1 Energy and Life - 8.2 Photosynthesis: An Overview - 8.3 The Process of Photosynthesis
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Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
Compound used by cells to store and release energy
ATP synthase
Cluster of proteins that span the cell membrane and allow hydrogen ions (H+) to pass through it
Autotroph
Organism that is able to capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce its own food from inorganic compounds; also called a producer
Calvin cycle
Another name for the light- independent reactions in which carbohydrates are produced
Chlorophyll
Principal pigment of plants and other photosynthetic organisms
Electron transport chain
Series of electron carrier proteins that shuttle high-energy electrons during ATP-generating reactions
heterotroph
Organism that obtains food by consuming other living things; also called a consumer
Light-dependent reactions
Set of reactions in photosynthesis that use energy from light to produce oxygen and convert ADP and NADP+ into energy carriers ATP and NADPH.
Light-independent reactions
Set of reactions in photosynthesis that do not require light; energy from ATP and NADPH is used to build high-energy compounds such as sugar; also called the Calvin cycle
NADP+
Carrier molecule that transfers high-energy electrons from chlorophyll to other molecules
Pigment
Light-absorbing molecule used by plants to gather the sun's energy
Photosynthesis
Process used by plants and other autotrophs to capture light energy and use it to power chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and energy-rich carbohydrates such as sugar and starches
Photosystem
Cluster of chlorophyll and proteins found in thylakoids
Stroma
Fluid portion of the chloroplast; outside of the thylakoids
Thylakoid
Saclike photosynthetic membranes found in chloroplasts