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Motor Learning Final Terms and Definitions
Terms in this set (36)
A general trait or capacity of an individual that is a determinant of a person's achievement potential for the performance of specific skills.
Bilateral transfer in which there is a greater amount of transfer from one limb than from the other limb
The general state of excitability of a person, involving physiological, emotional, and mental systems
Transfer of learning that occurs between two limbs.
A motor skill that requires the simultaneous use of the two arms. The skill may require the two arms to move with the same or different spatial and/or temporal characteristics.
A brain structure in the forebrain that consists of two halves, known as the right and left cerebral hemispheres.
A brain structure located behind the cerebral hemispheres and attached to the brainstem; it is covered by the cerebrallar cortex and is divided into two hemispheres; it plays a key role in the execution of smooth and accurate movements.
The undulating, wrinkly, gray-colored surface of the cerebrum; it is a thin tissue of nerve cell bodies (about 2-5 mm thick) called gray matter.
A clear surface that covers the front of the eye; it serves as an important part of the eye's optical system.
closed-loop control system
A system of control in which during the course of an action, feedback is compared against a standard or reference to enable an action to be carried out as planned
closed motor skill
A motor skill performed in a stable or predictable environment where the performer determines when to begin the action.
One of two types of photoreceptors in the retina; they detect bright light
continuous motor skill
A motor skill with arbitrary movement beginning and end points. These skills usually involve repetitive movements.
discrete motor skill
A motor skill with clearly defined movement beginning and end points, usually requiring a simple movement.
A human performance law specifying the movement time for an aiming action when the distance to move and the target size are know. It is quantified as MT= a + b log 2(2 D/W), where a and b are constants and W= target width, and D= distance from the starting point to the target.
A law of human performance stating that RT will increase logarithmically as the number of stimulus-response choices increases.
The eye structure that surrounds the pupil and provides the eye its color
The description of motion without regard to force or mass; it includes displacement, velocity, and acceleration.
The study of the role of forces as a cause of motion
An ability that is specifically related to the performance of a motor skill
The study of how our neuromuscular system functions to activate and coordinate the muscles and limbs involved in the performance of a motor skill. Researchers may investigate this question while a person is learning a new skill or performing a well learned or highly experienced skill
The capability of the motor control system to enable a person to achieve an action goal in a variety of situations and conditions (e.g., writing your signature with either hand).
the study of the acquisition of motor skills, the performance enhancement of learned or highly experienced motor skills, or the reacquisition of skills that are difficult to perform or cannot be performed because of injury, disease, and the like. Of interest are the behavioral and/or neurological changes that occurs as a person learns a motor skill and the variables that influence those changes
A memory representation that stores information needed to perform an action
Activities or tasks that require voluntary head, body, and/or limb movement to achieve a goal.
The alpha motor neuron and all the muscle fibers it innervates; it serves as the functional unit of motor control for the innervation of the muscles involved in a movement
open-loop control system
A control system in which all the information needed to initiate and carry out an action as planned is contained in the initial instructions to the effectors.
open motor skill
A motor skill that involves a nonstable unpredictable environment where an object or environmental context is in motion and determines when to begin the action.
The opening in the eye that lets in light; its diameter increases and decreases according to the amount of light detected by the eye.
The eye structure that lines the back wall of the eye; as an extension of the brain, it contains the neuroceptors that transmit visual information to the brain
serial motor skill
A motor skill involving a series of discrete skills
Bilateral transfer in which the amount of transfer is similar from one limb to another, no matter which limb is used first.
The sensory feedback that is naturally available while performing a skill
The process of directing visual attention to locate relevant information in the environment that will enable a person to determine how to perform a skill in a specific situation.
visual selective attention
The process of engaging vision in directing attention to specific environmental information (i.e., cues) that influence the preparation and/or performance of an action. It is selective because the specific cues attend to must be chosen from among other possible cues in the performance environment. The selective attention process may be active or passive.
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