25 terms

AP Human Geography: Chapter 2 (Population) Vocabulary

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Agricultural density
The ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture
Agricultural revolution
The time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering
Arithmetic density
The total number of people divided by the total land area
Census
A complete enumeration of a population
Crude birth rate (CBR)
The total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society
Crude death rate (CDR)
The total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society
Demographic transition
The process of changing the societies population from a condition of high crude birth and death rates and low rate of natural increase to a condition of low birth and death rates low rate of natural increase and a higher total population
Demography
The scientific study of population characteristics
Dependency ratio
The number of people under the age of 15 and over the age of 64, compared to the number of people active in the labor force
Doubling time
The number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase
Epidemiological transition
Distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition
Epidemiology
Branch of medical science concerned with the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases that affect large numbers of people
Ecumene
The portion of Earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement
Industrial revolution
A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods
Infant mortality rate (IMR)
The total number of deaths in a year among infants under one year old for every 1,000 live births in a society
Life expectancy
The average number of years and individual can be expected to live, given current social, economic, and medical conditions. At birth, it is the average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live
Medical revolution
Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffuse to the poor countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Improved medical practices have eliminated many of the traditional causes of death in poorer countries enabled more people to live longer and healthier lives
Natural increase rate (NIR) or rate of natural increase (RNI)
The percentage growth of the population in the year, computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate
Overpopulation
The number of people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living
Pandemic
Disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion of the population
Physiological density
The number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture
Population pyramid
A bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex
Sex ratio
The number of males per 100 females in the population
Total fertility rate (TFR)
The average number of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years
Zero population growth (ZPG)
A decline of the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equal zero
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