58 terms

AP Human Geography: Chapter 1 (Thinking Geographically) Vocabulary


Terms in this set (...)

Agricultural density
The ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable agriculture
Arithmetic density
The total number of people divided by the total land area
Base line
An east-west line designated under the Land Ordinance of 1785 to facilitate the surveying in numbering of townships in the United States
The science of making maps
The spread of something over a given area
Relationships among people and objects across the barrier of space
Contagious diffusion
The rapid, widespread diffusion of a feature or trend throughout a population
Cultural ecology
Geographic approach that emphasizes human-environment relationships
Cultural landscape
Fashioning of a natural landscape by a cultural group
The body of customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits that together constitute a group of people's distinct traditions
Frequency with which something exists within a given unit of area
The process of spread of a feature or trend from one place to another over time
Distance decay
The diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin
The arrangement of something across Earth's surface
Environmental determinism
A 19th and early 20th century approach to the study of geography that argued that the general laws sought by human geographers could be found in the physical sciences. Geography was therefore the study of how the physical environment caused human activities
Expansion diffusion
The spread of a feature or trend among people from one area to another in a snowballing process
Formal region
An area in which everyone shares in one or more distinctive characteristics. Also known as a uniform region or a homogeneous region
Functional region
An area organized around a node or focal point. Also known as a nodal region
Geographic information system (GIS)
A computer system that stores, analyzes, and displays geographic data
Global positioning system (GPS)
A system that determines the precise position of something on Earth through a series of satellites, tracking stations, and receivers
Actions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope
Greenwich Mean Time
The time in that time zone encompassing the prime meridian, or 0° longitude
The region from which innovative ideas originate
Hierarchical diffusion
The spread of a feature or trend from one key person or node of authority or power to other persons or places
International Date Line
An arc that for the most part follows 180° longitude, although it deviates in several places to avoid dividing land areas. When you cross it heading east (toward America), the clock moves back 24 hours, or one entire day. When you go west toward Asia, the calendar moves ahead one day
Land Ordinance of 1785
A law that divided much of the United States into a system of townships to facilitate the sale of land to settlers
The numbering system used to indicate the location of parallels drawn on the globe and measuring distance north and south of the equator (0°)
The position of anything on Earth's surface
The numbering system used to indicate the location of meridians drawn on a globe in measuring the distance east and west of the prime meridian (0°)
A two-dimensional, or flat, representation of Earth's surface
Mental map
An internal representation of a portion of Earth's surface based on what individual knows about a place, containing personal impressions of what is in a place and where places are located
An arc drawn on a map between the North and South poles
A circle drawn around the globe parallel to the equator and at right angles to the meridians
The geographic or regular arrangement of something in a study area
Physiological density
The number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture
A specific point on Earth distinguished by a particular character
Land created by the Dutch by draining water from an area
The theory that the physical environment may set limits on human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives
Prime meridian
The meridian, designated as 0° longitude, which passes through the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, England
Principal meridian
A north-south line designated in the Land Ordinance of 1785 to facilitate the surveying and numbering of townships in the United States
The system used to transfer locations from Earth's surface to a flat map
An area distinguished by a unique combination of trends or features
Regional studies
An approach to geography that emphasizes the relationships among social and physical phenomena in a particular study area. Also known as cultural landscape studies
Relocation diffusion
The spread of a feature or trend through bodily movement of people from one place to another
Remote sensing
The acquisition of data about Earth's surface from a satellite orbiting the planet or other long-distance methods
A substance in the environment that is useful to people, is economically and technologically feasible to access, and is socially acceptable to use
Generally, the relationship between the portion of the Earth being studied and Earth as a whole, specifically the relationship between the size of an object on the map and the size of the actual feature on Earth's surface
A square normally 1 mile on a side. The Land Ordinance of 1785 divided townships in the United States into 36 of these.
The physical character of a place
The location of a place relative to other places
The physical gap or interval between two objects
Space-time compression
The reduction in the time it takes to diffuse something to a distant place, as a result of improved communications and transportation systems
Stimulus diffusion
The spread of an underlying principle, even though a specific characteristic is rejected
The name given to a portion of Earth's surface
A square normally 6 miles on a side. The Land Ordinance of 1785 divided much of the United States into a series of these.
Transnational corporation
A company that conducts research, operates factories, and sells products in many countries, not just where is headquarters or shareholders are located
Uneven development
The increasing gap in economic conditions between core and peripheral regions as a result of the globalization of the economy
Vernacular region
An area that people believe exists as part of their cultural identity. Also known as perceptual region.